A novel nucleotide incorporation activity implicated in the editing of mitochondrial transfer RNAs in Acanthamoeba castellanii.
In Acanthamoeba castellanii, most of the mtDNA-encoded tRNAs are edited by a process that replaces one or more of the first three nucleotides at their 5' ends. As a result, base pairing potential is restored at acceptor stem positions (1:72, 2:71, and/or 3:70, in standard tRNA nomenclature) that are mismatched according to the corresponding tRNA gene sequence. Here we describe a novel nucleotide incorporation activity, partially purified from A. castellanii mitochondria, that has properties implicating it in mitochondrial tRNA editing in this organism. This activity is able to replace nucleotides at the first three positions of a tRNA (positions 1, 2, and 3), matching the newly incorporated residues through canonical base pairing to the respective partner nucleotide in the 3' half of the acceptor stem. Labeling experiments with natural (Escherichia coli tRNATyr) and synthetic (run-off transcripts corresponding to A. castellanii mitochondrial tRNALeu1) substrates suggest that the nucleotide incorporation activity consists of at least two components, a 5' exonuclease or endonuclease and a template-directed 3'-to-5' nucleotidyltransferase. The nucleotidyltransferase component displays an ATP requirement and generates 5' pppN... termini in vitro. The development of an accurate and efficient in vitro system opens the way for detailed studies of the biochemical properties of this novel activity and its relationship to mitochondrial tRNA editing in A. castellanii. In addition, the system will allow delineation of the structural features in a tRNA that identify it as a substrate for the labeling activity. (+info)
A cis-acting A-U sequence element induces kinetoplastid U-insertions.
A 34-nucleotide A-U sequence located immediately upstream of the editing sites of the Leishmania tarentolae cytochrome b mRNA induces a mitochondrial extract to insert U nucleotides independent of guide RNA. Insertions are localized to positions immediately 5' and 3' of the A-U sequence. When placed within an unedited mammalian transcript, the A-U sequence is sufficient to induce U-insertions. The sequence has a high degree of similarity with the templating nucleotides of a cytochrome b guide RNA and with a sequence adjacent to the editing sites in ND7 mRNA, the other characterized kinetoplastid mRNA supporting guide RNA-independent U-insertions. At least one protein specifically interacts with the A-U sequence. The reaction is consistent with a mechanism proposed for guide RNA-directed editing. (+info)
The RNA-editing enzyme ADAR1 is localized to the nascent ribonucleoprotein matrix on Xenopus lampbrush chromosomes but specifically associates with an atypical loop.
Double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase (ADAR1, dsRAD, DRADA) converts adenosines to inosines in double-stranded RNAs. Few candidate substrates for ADAR1 editing are known at this point and it is not known how substrate recognition is achieved. In some cases editing sites are defined by basepaired regions formed between intronic and exonic sequences, suggesting that the enzyme might function cotranscriptionally. We have isolated two variants of Xenopus laevis ADAR1 for which no editing substrates are currently known. We demonstrate that both variants of the enzyme are associated with transcriptionally active chromosome loops suggesting that the enzyme acts cotranscriptionally. The widespread distribution of the protein along the entire chromosome indicates that ADAR1 associates with the RNP matrix in a substrate-independent manner. Inhibition of splicing, another cotranscriptional process, does not affect the chromosomal localization of ADAR1. Furthermore, we can show that the enzyme is dramatically enriched on a special RNA-containing loop that seems transcriptionally silent. Detailed analysis of this loop suggests that it might represent a site of ADAR1 storage or a site where active RNA editing is taking place. Finally, mutational analysis of ADAR1 demonstrates that a putative Z-DNA binding domain present in ADAR1 is not required for chromosomal targeting of the protein. (+info)
The involvement of gRNA-binding protein gBP21 in RNA editing-an in vitro and in vivo analysis.
RNA editing in the parasitic organism Trypanosoma brucei is characterised by the insertion and deletion of uridylate residues into otherwise incomplete primary transcripts. The processing reaction is a required pathway for the expression of most mitochondrial genes and proceeds by a cascade of enzyme-catalysed steps. RNA editing involves one or more macromolecular ribonucleoprotein complexes which are likely to interact with additional components as the reaction proceeds. Here we examined the involvement of the gRNA-binding polypeptide gBP21, a protein which has been demonstrated to be associated with active RNA editing complexes. We show that in vitro RNA editing can be suppressed by the addition of a gBP21-specific antibody or by immunodepletion of the protein. By creating a gBP21 knockout mutant we analysed the requirement for the protein in vivo. gBP21(-) trypanosomes are viable as bloodstream stage cells and contain edited mRNAs. However, the knockout mutant is not capable of differentiating from the bloodstream to the insect life cycle stage in vitro. Moreover, mutant cells are characterised by a low mitochondrial transcript abundance. Together, these data establish that gBP21 contributes a non-essential function to the RNA editing reaction and further suggest that the protein is involved in additional mitochondrial processes which impact a larger pool of mitochondrial transcripts. (+info)
RNA determinants for translational editing. Mischarging a minihelix substrate by a tRNA synthetase.
The fidelity of protein synthesis requires efficient discrimination of amino acid substrates by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Accurate discrimination of the structurally similar amino acids, valine and isoleucine, by isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IleRS) results, in part, from a hydrolytic editing reaction, which prevents misactivated valine from being stably joined to tRNAIle. The editing reaction is dependent on the presence of tRNAIle, which contains discrete D-loop nucleotides that are necessary to promote editing of misactivated valine. RNA minihelices comprised of just the acceptor-TPsiC helix of tRNAIle are substrates for specific aminoacylation by IleRS. These substrates lack the aforementioned D-loop nucleotides. Because minihelices contain determinants for aminoacylation, we thought that they might also play a role in editing that has not previously been recognized. Here we show that, in contrast to tRNAIle, minihelixIle is unable to trigger the hydrolysis of misactivated valine and, in fact, is mischarged with valine. In addition, mutations in minihelixIle that enhance or suppress charging with isoleucine do the same with valine. Thus, minihelixIle contains signals for charging (by IleRS) that are independent of the amino acid and, by itself, minihelixIle provides no determinants for editing. An RNA hairpin that mimics the D-stem/loop of tRNAIle is also unable to induce the hydrolysis of misactivated valine, both by itself and in combination with minihelixIle. Thus, the native tertiary fold of tRNAIle is required to promote efficient editing. Considering that the minihelix is thought to be the more ancestral part of the tRNA structure, these results are consistent with the idea that, during the development of the genetic code, RNA determinants for editing were added after the establishment of an aminoacylation system. (+info)
RNA editing of the human serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C receptor silences constitutive activity.
RNA transcripts encoding the serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C (5-HT2C) receptor (5-HT2CR) undergo adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing events at up to five specific sites. Compared with rat brain, human brain samples expressed higher levels of RNA transcripts encoding the amino acids valine-serine-valine (5-HT2C-VSV) and valine-glycine-valine (5-HT2C-VGV) at positions 156, 158, and 160, respectively. Agonist stimulation of the nonedited human receptor (5-HT2C-INI) and the edited 5-HT2C-VSV and 5-HT2C-VGV receptor variants stably expressed in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts demonstrated that serotonergic agonists were less potent at the edited receptors. Competition binding experiments revealed a guanine nucleotide-sensitive serotonin high affinity state only for the 5-HT2C-INI receptor; the loss of high affinity agonist binding to the edited receptor demonstrates that RNA editing generates unique 5-HT2CRs that couple less efficiently to G proteins. This reduced G protein coupling for the edited isoforms is primarily due to silencing of the constitutive activity of the nonedited 5-HT2CR. The distinctions in agonist potency and constitutive activity suggest that different edited 5-HT2CRs exhibit distinct responses to serotonergic ligands and further imply that RNA editing represents a novel mechanism for controlling physiological signaling at serotonergic synapses. (+info)
Mutational analysis of apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme (APOBEC1). structure-function relationships of RNA editing and dimerization.
APOBEC1 is the catalytic subunit of an enzyme complex that mediates apolipoprotein (apo) B mRNA editing. It dimerizes in vitro and requires complementation factor(s) for its editing activity. We have performed a systematic analysis of the structure-functional relationship of APOBEC1 by targeted mutagenesis of various sequence motifs within the protein. Using in vitro RNA editing assay, we found that basic amino acid clusters at the amino-terminal region R15R16R17 and R33K34, are essential for apoB mRNA editing. Mutation of R15R16R17 to K15K16K17 and mutation of R33K34 simultaneously to A33A34 almost completely abolished in vitro editing activity. The carboxy-terminal region of APOBEC1 contains a leucine-rich motif. Deletion analysis of this region indicates that residues 181 to 210 are important for in vitro apoB mRNA editing. Single amino acid substitutions demonstrate that L182, I185, and L189 are important residues required for normal editing function. Furthermore, the double mutant P190A/P191A also lost >90% of editing activity which suggests that a beta turn in this region of the molecule may be essential for proper functioning of APOBEC1. It was suggested that dimerization of APOBEC1 creates an active structure for deamination of apoB mRNA. When we examined the dimerization potential of truncated APOBEC1s using both amino and carboxy termini deletion mutants, we found that amino-terminal deletions up to residue A117 did not impair dimerization activity whereas carboxy-terminal deletions showed diminished dimerization. The systematic and extensive mutagenesis experiments in this study provide information on the role of various sequence motifs identified in APOBEC1 in enzyme catalysis and dimerization. (+info)
The reversible change of GluR2 RNA editing in gerbil hippocampus in course of ischemic tolerance.
The ischemic tolerance is known to show protective effects on the neurons and the restricted Ca2+ influx through Ca2+ channels might be involved. In alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor, ribonucleic acid (RNA) editing of the GluR2 subunit determines receptor desensitization and Ca2+ permeability. The authors investigated the effect of ischemic tolerance on the messenger RNA editing of Q/R and R/G sites of GluR2 subunit in hippocampus. It was found that the rate of RNA editing in Q/R site showed no change (100% edited), whereas that in R/G site decreased significantly (83.3% normal editing level to 60.4%) at day 3 (preconditioning period) and returned to normal level at day 14 (after preconditioning period). Further investigation revealed that the decrease of editing rate in ischemic tolerance resulted mainly from the decrease of editing in CA1 area. (+info)