Stimulation of in vitro sumoylation by Slx5-Slx8: evidence for a functional interaction with the SUMO pathway.
The yeast genes SLX5 and SLX8 were identified based on their requirement for viability in the absence of the Sgs1 DNA helicase. Loss of these genes results in genome instability, nibbled colonies, and other phenotypes associated with defects in sumoylation. The Slx5 and Slx8 proteins form a stable complex and each subunit contains a single RING-finger domain at its C-terminus. To determine the physiological function of the Slx5-8 complex, we explored its interaction with the SUMO pathway. Curing 2micro circle from the mutants, suppressed their nibbled colony phenotype and partially improved their growth rate, but did not affect their sensitivity to hydroxyurea. The increase in sumoylation observed in slx5Delta and slx8Delta mutants was found to be dependent on the Siz1 SUMO ligase. Physical interactions between the Slx5-8 complex and both Ubc9 and Smt3 were identified and characterized. Using in vitro reactions, we show that Slx5, Slx8, or the Slx5-8 complex stimulates the formation of SUMO chains and the sumoylation of a test substrate. Interestingly, a functional RING-finger domain is not required for this stimulation in vitro. These biochemical data demonstrate for the first time that the Slx5 and Slx8 complex is capable of interacting directly with the SUMO pathway. (+info)
The yeast Hex3.Slx8 heterodimer is a ubiquitin ligase stimulated by substrate sumoylation.
Hex3 and Slx8 are Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins with important functions in DNA damage control and maintenance of genomic stability. Both proteins have RING domains at their C termini. Such domains are common in ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like protein ligases (E3s), but little was known about the molecular functions of either protein. In this study we identified HEX3 as a high-copy suppressor of a temperature-sensitive small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) protease mutant, ulp1ts, suggesting that it may affect cellular SUMO dynamics. Remarkably, even a complete deletion of ULP1 is strongly suppressed. Hex3 forms a heterodimer with Slx8. We found that the Hex3.Slx8 complex has a robust substrate-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. In this E3 complex, Slx8 appears to bear the core ligase function, with Hex3 strongly enhancing its activity. Notably, SUMO attachment to a substrate stimulates its Hex3.Slx8-dependent ubiquitination, primarily through direct noncovalent interactions between SUMO and Hex3. Our data reveal a novel mechanism of substrate targeting in which sumoylation of a protein can help trigger its subsequent ubiquitination by recruiting a SUMO-binding ubiquitin ligase. (+info)
Structural requirements for the BARD1 tumor suppressor in chromosomal stability and homology-directed DNA repair.
The BRCA1 tumor suppressor exists as a heterodimeric complex with BARD1, and this complex is thought to mediate many of the functions ascribed to BRCA1, including its role in tumor suppression. The two proteins share a common structural organization that features an N-terminal RING domain and two C-terminal BRCT motifs, whereas BARD1 alone also contains three tandem ankyrin repeats. In normal cells, the BRCA1/BARD1 heterodimer is believed to enhance chromosome stability by promoting homology-directed repair (HDR) of double strand DNA breaks. Here we have investigated the structural requirements for BARD1 in this process by complementation of Bard1-null mouse mammary carcinoma cells. Our results demonstrate that the ankyrin and BRCT motifs of BARD1 are each essential for both chromosome stability and HDR. Tandem BRCT motifs, including those found at the C terminus of BARD1, are known to form a phosphoprotein recognition module. Nonetheless, the HDR function of BARD1 was not perturbed by synthetic mutations predicted to ablate the phospho-recognition activity of its BRCT sequences, suggesting that some functions of the BRCT domains are not dependent on their ability to bind phosphorylated ligands. Also, cancer-associated missense mutations in the BRCT domains of BARD1 (e.g. C557S, Q564H, V695L, and S761N) have been observed in patients with breast, ovarian, and endometrial tumors. However, none of these was found to affect the HDR activity of BARD1, suggesting that any increased cancer risk conferred by these mutations is not because of defects in this repair mechanism. (+info)
Cwc24p, a novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae nuclear ring finger protein, affects pre-snoRNA U3 splicing.
U3 snoRNA is transcribed from two intron-containing genes in yeast, snR17A and snR17B. Although the assembly of the U3 snoRNP has not been precisely determined, at least some of the core box C/D proteins are known to bind pre-U3 co-transcriptionally, thereby affecting splicing and 3'-end processing of this snoRNA. We identified the interaction between the box C/D assembly factor Nop17p and Cwc24p, a novel yeast RING finger protein that had been previously isolated in a complex with the splicing factor Cef1p. Here we show that, consistent with the protein interaction data, Cwc24p localizes to the cell nucleus, and its depletion leads to the accumulation of both U3 pre-snoRNAs. U3 snoRNA is involved in the early cleavages of 35 S pre-rRNA, and the defective splicing of pre-U3 detected in cells depleted of Cwc24p causes the accumulation of the 35 S precursor rRNA. These results led us to the conclusion that Cwc24p is involved in pre-U3 snoRNA splicing, indirectly affecting pre-rRNA processing. (+info)
The yeast Slx5-Slx8 DNA integrity complex displays ubiquitin ligase activity.
Genetic studies in budding yeast have previously implicated SLX5 and SLX8 in the control of genome stability and sumoylation. These genes encode RING-finger domain proteins that form a complex of unknown function. Because RING-finger proteins comprise a large class of ubiquitin (Ub) ligases, Slx5 and Slx8 were tested for this activity. Here we show that the Slx5-Slx8 complex, but not its individual subunits, stimulates several human and yeast Ub conjugating enzymes, including Ubc1, 4, 5, and Ubc13-Mms2. The RING-finger domains of both subunits are genetically required for suppression of slx sgs1Delta synthetic-lethality, and point mutations that abolish Ub ligase activity in vitro also eliminate in vivo complementation. Targets of the in vitro ubiquitination reaction include the Slx5 and Slx8 subunits themselves, and the homologous recombination proteins Rad52 and Rad57. We propose that the Slx5-Slx8 complex functions as a two-component Ub ligase in vivo and that it controls genome stability and sumoylation via ubiquitination. (+info)
Functional analysis of a RING domain ankyrin repeat protein that is highly expressed during flower senescence.
A gene encoding a RING zinc finger ankyrin repeat protein (MjXB3), a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase, is highly expressed in petals of senescing four o'clock (Mirabilis jalapa) flowers, increasing >40,000-fold during the onset of visible senescence. The gene has homologues in many other species, and the Petunia homologue is strongly up-regulated in senescing Petunia corollas. Silencing the expression of this gene in Petunia, using virus-induced gene silencing, resulted in a 2 d extension in flower life. In Mirabilis, a 2 kb promoter region, 5' upstream of the MjXB3 gene, was isolated. The promoter sequence included putative binding sites for many DNA-binding proteins, including the bZIP, Myb, homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip), MADS-box, and WRKY transcription factors. The construct containing a 1 kb promoter region immediately upstream of the MjXB3 gene drove the strongest expression of the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene in a transient expression assay. In Petunia, GUS expression under the control of this heterologous promoter fragment was specific to senescing flowers. The Mirabilis promoter GUS construct was tested in other flower species; while GUS activity in carnation petals was high during senescence, no expression was detected in three monocotyledonous flowers--daylily (Hemerocallis 'Stella d'Oro'), daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus 'King Alfred'), and orchid (Dendrobium 'Emma White'). (+info)
PHD domain-mediated E3 ligase activity directs intramolecular sumoylation of an adjacent bromodomain required for gene silencing.
Tandem PHD and bromodomains are often found in chromatin-associated proteins and have been shown to cooperate in gene silencing. Each domain can bind specifically modified histones: the mechanisms of cooperation between these domains are unknown. We show that the PHD domain of the KAP1 corepressor functions as an intramolecular E3 ligase for sumoylation of the adjacent bromodomain. The RING finger-like structure of the PHD domain is required for both Ubc9 binding and sumoylation and directs modification to specific lysine residues in the bromodomain. Sumoylation is required for KAP1-mediated gene silencing and functions by directly recruiting the SETDB1 histone methyltransferase and the CHD3/Mi2 component of the NuRD complex via SUMO-interacting motifs. Sumoylated KAP1 stimulates the histone methyltransferase activity of SETDB1. These data provide a mechanistic explanation for the cooperation of PHD and bromodomains in gene regulation and describe a function of the PHD domain as an intramolecular E3 SUMO ligase. (+info)
DIAP2 functions as a mechanism-based regulator of drICE that contributes to the caspase activity threshold in living cells.