(1/262) Successful short-term suppression of clarithromycin-resistant Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in AIDS. California Collaborative Treatment Group.
During a randomized study of clarithromycin plus clofazimine with or without ethambutol in patients with AIDS and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteremia, eight participants received additional antimycobacterial drugs following the detection of a clarithromycin-resistant isolate (MIC, > 8 micrograms/mL). A macrolide (seven received clarithromycin, one azithromycin) and clofazimine were continued; additional treatment included various combinations of ethambutol, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and rifabutin. After the detection of a resistant isolate and before receipt of additional antimycobacterials, the median peak MAC colony count in blood was 105 cfu/mL (range, 8-81,500 cfu/mL). After additional antimycobacterials, the median nadir MAC colony count was 5 cfu/mL (range, 0-110 cfu/mL). Five (63%) of eight patients had a > or = 1 log10 decrease, including two who achieved negative blood cultures; all of these responses occurred in patients originally assigned to clarithromycin plus clofazimine. Treatment of clarithromycin-resistant MAC bacteremia that emerges during clarithromycin-based treatment can decrease levels of bacteremia and transiently sterilize blood cultures. (+info)
(2/262) Rifampin and rifabutin resistance mechanism in Helicobacter pylori.
Eighty-one clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori showed no resistance to rifampin (MIC range, 0.032 to 2 microg/ml; MIC at which 50% of isolates are inhibited [MIC50], 0.25 microg/ml). The MIC50 of rifabutin was 0.008 microg/ml (n = 16). All resistant laboratory mutants of H. pylori ATCC 43504 showed amino acid exchanges in codons 524 to 545 or codon 585 of the rpoB gene, corresponding to the gene sequences from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Escherichia coli. (+info)
(3/262) Successful treatment of pulmonary Mycobacterium xenopi infection in a natural killer cell-deficient patient with clarithromycin, rifabutin, and sparfloxacin.
Isolation of Mycobacterium xenopi from the respiratory tract may indicate pneumonia, often clinically indistinguishable from tuberculosis. Resistance to the classic antituberculous drugs renders the treatment of these infections problematic. We report on a case of cavernous pneumonia caused by M. xenopi in a 36-year-old male with natural killer cell deficiency but without severe immunodeficiency. He was successfully treated with a novel triple-drug combination comprising clarithromycin, sparfloxacin, and rifabutin. An impressive subsequent regression of pathological pulmonary changes was observed, and mycobacteria could no longer be detected. The therapeutic potential of clarithromycin and sparfloxacin in the treatment of M. xenopi infections is discussed. (+info)
(4/262) A prospective randomized trial of four three-drug regimens in the treatment of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex disease in AIDS patients: excess mortality associated with high-dose clarithromycin. Terry Beirn Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS.
The optimal regimen for treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease has not been established. Eighty-five AIDS patients with disseminated MAC disease were randomized to receive a three-drug regimen of clarithromycin, rifabutin or clofazimine, and ethambutol. Two dosages of clarithromycin, 500 or 1,000 mg twice daily (b.i.d.), were compared. The Data and Safety Monitoring Board recommended discontinuation of the clarithromycin dosage comparison and continuation of the rifabutin vs. clofazimine comparison. After a mean follow-up of 4.5 months, 10 (22%) of 45 patients receiving clarithromycin at 500 mg b.i.d. had died (70 deaths per 100 person-years) compared with 17 (43%) of 40 patients receiving clarithromycin at 1,000 mg b.i.d. (158 deaths per 100 person-years) (relative risk, 2.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-5.34; P = .02). After 10.4 months, 20 (49%) of 41 patients receiving rifabutin had died (81 deaths per 100 person-years) compared with 23 (52%) of 44 patients receiving clofazimine (94 deaths per 100 person-years) (relative risk, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-2.19; P = .56). Bacteriologic outcomes were similar among treatment groups. In treating MAC disease in AIDS patients, the maximum dose of clarithromycin should be 500 mg b.i.d. (+info)
(5/262) A randomized, placebo-controlled study of rifabutin added to a regimen of clarithromycin and ethambutol for treatment of disseminated infection with Mycobacterium avium complex.
Current guidelines suggest that disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection be treated with a macrolide plus ethambutol or rifabutin or both. From 1993 to 1996, 198 AIDS patients with MAC bacteremia participated in a prospective, placebo-controlled trial of clarithromycin (500 mg b.i.d.) plus ethambutol (1,200 mg/d), with or without rifabutin (300 mg/d). At 16 weeks, 63% of patients in the rifabutin group and 61% in the placebo group (P = .81) had responded bacteriologically. Changes in clinical symptoms and time to survival were similar in both groups. Development of clarithromycin resistance during therapy was similar in the two groups; of patients who had a bacteriologic response, however, only 1 of 44 (2%) receiving rifabutin developed clarithromycin resistance, vs. 6 of 42 (14%) in the placebo group (P = .055). Thus, rifabutin had no impact on bacteriologic response or survival but may protect against development of clarithromycin resistance in those who respond to therapy. (+info)
(6/262) Cineromycins, gamma-butyrolactones and ansamycins by analysis of the secondary metabolite pattern created by a single strain of Streptomyces.
The antifungal and antibacterial properties of the crude extract from Streptomyces sp. (strain Go 40/10) encouraged us to perform a detailed analysis of its secondary metabolite pattern by chemical screening, which revealed the presence of at least 30 different compounds. Ten of the isolated 18 metabolites proved to be new. Remarkable are hydrogenated (3, 4) and glucosylated (5, 6, 7) 14-membered macrolides derived from cineromycin B, two gamma-butyrolactones (8, 9), the so far unknown naphthomycin K (14) and the collinolactones A and B. The constitution and relative stereochemistry of these metabolites were deduced from spectroscopic data. Finally the concept of our one strain/many compounds (OSMAC) method for exploring new microbial secondary metabolites is discussed. (+info)
(7/262) In-vitro activity of rifabutin and albendazole singly and in combination with other clinically used antimicrobial agents against Pneumocystis carinii.
The in-vitro activity of rifabutin and albendazole alone and in combination with clarithromycin, etoposide, minocycline and pyrimethamine was investigated against four clinical isolates of Pneumocystis carinii. The susceptibility tests were performed by inoculation of the isolates on to cell monolayers and by determining the parasite count after 72 h incubation at 37 degrees C. The culture medium was supplemented with serial dilutions of each agent. Albendazole tested alone was more active than rifabutin. Albendazole suppressed the growth of cysts and trophozoites by >50% at 4 mg/L. Rifabutin, at the same concentration, produced about 40% reduction in the mean cyst and trophozoite counts. Albendazole (4 mg/L) combined with etoposide 4 mg/L showed the highest anti-P. carinii activity, with a decrease of 86.3% and 90.1% in cyst and trophozoite counts, respectively. The greatest synergic interaction was detected when rifabutin (4 mg/L) was combined with clarithromycin (4 mg/L). Our study suggests that clinically used antimicrobial agents may be effective in inhibiting P. carinii growth in vitro and that, above all, some of these agents possess a positive interaction upon combination with other clinically used compounds. These findings may be useful in the establishment of a prophylaxis regimen for multiple opportunistic pathogens. (+info)
(8/262) DT-Diaphorase expression and tumor cell sensitivity to 17-allylamino, 17-demethoxygeldanamycin, an inhibitor of heat shock protein 90.
BACKGROUND: To our knowledge, 17-allylamino,17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17AAG) is the first inhibitor of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) to enter a phase I clinical trial in cancer. Inhibition of Hsp90, a chaperone protein (a protein that helps other proteins avoid misfolding pathways that produce inactive or aggregated states), leads to depletion of important oncogenic proteins, including Raf-1 and mutant p53 (also known as TP53). Given its ansamycin benzoquinone structure, we questioned whether the antitumor activity of 17AAG was affected by expression of the NQO1 gene, which encodes the quinone-metabolizing enzyme DT-diaphorase. METHODS: The antitumor activity of 17AAG and other Hsp90 inhibitors was determined by use of a sulforhodamine B-based cell growth inhibition assay in culture and by the arrest of xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. DT-diaphorase activity was determined by use of a spectrophotometric assay, and protein expression was determined by means of western immunoblotting. RESULTS: In two independent in vitro human tumor cell panels, we observed a positive relationship between DT-diaphorase expression level and growth inhibition by 17AAG. Stable, high-level expression of the active NQO1 gene transfected into the DT-diaphorase-deficient (by NQO1 mutation) BE human colon carcinoma cell line resulted in a 32-fold increase in 17AAG growth-inhibition activity. Increased sensitivity to 17AAG in the transfected cell line was also confirmed in xenografts. The extent of depletion of Raf-1 and mutant p53 protein confirmed that the Hsp90 inhibition mechanism was maintained in cells with high and low levels of DT-diaphorase. 17AAG was shown to be a substrate for purified human DT-diaphorase. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the antitumor activity and possibly the toxicologic properties of 17AAG in humans may be influenced by the expression of DT-diaphorase. Careful monitoring for NQO1 polymorphism and the level of tumor DT-diaphorase activity is therefore recommended in clinical trials with 17AAG. (+info)