Gamma-irradiated scrub typhus immunogens: development and duration of immunity.
The development and duration of immunity to lethal scrub typhus infection was studied in BALB/c mice vaccinated with gamma-irradiated Rickettsia tsutsugamushi, strain Karp. One intraperitoneal injection containing approximately 10(8) 50% mouse lethal doses (MLD(50)) of irradiated organisms elicited an immune response protective against challenge with 10(5) MLD(50) of viable Karp. The same mass of immunogen given in three injections at 5-day intervals increased homologous (Karp strain) protection 25-fold and heterologous (Kato strain) protection 60-fold. Further temporal expansion of the immunization regimen did not increase protection. Subcutaneous vaccination provided significant, but lower, levels of protection than were achieved by intraperitoneal immunization, but the levels of cell-transferable immunity elicited by the two routes were approximately the same. Immunologically specific protection after intraperitoneal vaccination developed rapidly enough to provide resistance against simultaneous challenge with 200 MLD(50) of Karp. Homologous immunity was protective against a 10(6)-MLD(50) challenge 7 days after completion of the three-injection regimen, remained at that level for 3 months, dropped to 10(4) MLD(50) by 9 months, and was effective against a 50-MLD(50) Karp challenge at 12 months. Protection against heterologous challenge was first observed on day 17 and peaked on day 38, when the mice resisted a 10(5)-MLD(50) Kato challenge. Thereafter, heterologous protection waned rapidly and was not significant at 6 months. (+info)
Gamma-irradiated scrub typhus immunogens: broad-spectrum immunity with combinations of rickettsial strains.
Scrub typhus immunogens were prepared from Rickettsia tsutsugamushi strains Karp, Kato, Gilliam, Kostival, and Buie by exposing frozen infected yolk sac suspensions to 300 krad of gamma radiation. Mouse protection tests showed that each of the irradiated immunogens protected C3H/HeDub mice against high challenge levels of Karp and Gilliam, but that none of these single-strain immunogens were capable of protecting against all five of the challenge strains. Broad-spectrum protection was achieved by using combinations of three strains of irradiated rickettsiae in a vaccination regimen of three injections at 5-day intervals. A comparison of vaccination efficacy employing three such combinations (Karp-Gilliam-Kato, Karp-Kostival-Kato, and Buie-Kostival-Kato) indicated that both sequential administration of strains on successive vaccination days and multiple injections of trivalent mixtures produced protective responses superior to those obtained with single-strain immunogens. Trivalent mixtures of rickettsiae exhibited a striking synergistic effect on the immune response of C3H/HeDub mice and elicited a protective response against Kato challenge that could not be obtained with any single-strain immunogen. Mice vaccinated with the trivalent Karp-Gilliam-Kato immunogen resisted challenge with more than 10(3) 50% mouse lethal doses of Karp and Gilliam for 12 months, and were resistant to similar levels of challenge with Kato and Buie for 6 months. (+info)
The past and present threat of rickettsial diseases to military medicine and international public health.
Morbidity and mortality caused by rickettsioses have had a major influence on military activities and public health for >2000 years. The threat posed by the rickettsioses is reviewed, focusing on the impact and epidemiology of those that have adversely influenced wartime operations and the current challenges posed by these diseases. With their uneven worldwide distribution, the discovery of drug-refractory strains of Orientia tsutsugamushi, the increased threat of their use in acts of bioterrorism, frequent deployment of troops to regions of endemicity, and exposures due to increased humanitarian missions, these diseases continue to be a threat to military personnel in the field. Effective strategies to reduce the impact of these diseases include development of effective vaccines, enhanced surveillance, and development of new safe, effective, and odorless repellants. The continuation of a proven, highly productive military infectious disease research program is essential for providing solutions to these daunting tasks. (+info)
Evaluation of a killed Rocky Mountain spotted fever vaccine in cynomolgus monkeys.
A nonhuman primate model of Rocky Mountain spotted fever infection was developed in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) infected by the subcutaneous route or by aerosol. Clinical responses, hematology and serum chemistry values, and pathological findings were similar to those found in humans ill with Rocky Mountain spotted fever. The clinical model was then used to test the efficacy of a killed Rocky Mountain spotted fever vaccine grown in chicken embryo cells. Monkeys were immunized with varying dilutions of the vaccine with a two-dose schedule and then challenged at 2 months with virulent Rickettsia rickettsii by the subcutaneous route or by aerosol. The undiluted vaccine totally protected monkeys against both challenges, even at extremely high doses. (+info)
Insight into the virulence of Rickettsia prowazekii by proteomic analysis and comparison with an avirulent strain.
Rickettsia prowazekii, an obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium, is the etiologic agent of epidemic typhus. We analyzed the proteome of the virulent Breinl strain of R. prowazekii purified from infected egg yolk sacs. Total proteins from purified R. prowazekii Breinl strain were reduced by dithiothreitol, alkylated by iodoacetic acid and digested with trypsin followed by analysis with an integrated two-dimensional liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry system (2D-LC/MS/MS). A comparison was made using previously analyzed proteome of the Madrid E strain and current analysis of the Breinl strain. For Breinl 251 proteins were identified, representing 30% of the total protein-encoding genes, using a shotgun 2D-LC/MS/MS proteomic approach. This result is identical to that of Madrid E strain. Among the identified proteins, 33 from Breinl and 37 from Madrid E have an unknown function. A methyltransferase, RP028/RP027, whose gene is mutated in the avirulent Madrid E strain but not in the virulent Breinl strain, was only detectable in the Breinl strain, consistent with the genetic mutation in Madrid E. This result suggests the possible relationship between this gene product and the virulence of the strains. (+info)
Doctor T. E. Woodward's legacy: from typhus to typhoid fever.
Dr. Theodore E. Woodward was one of the early giants of infectious diseases research who set the groundwork for the field. He was the first to evaluate vaccines against typhus, employing volunteers to test the effectiveness of the vaccines. This led to the evaluation of chloramphenicol for the treatment of rickettsial diseases and typhoid fever. Subsequently, he was influential in establishing a unique volunteer unit in Maryland in which a wide range of vaccines were evaluated. (+info)
Enteric fever: an Israeli perspective.
Typhoid fever is no longer endemic to most developed countries, including Israel. When encountered, it usually occurs in travelers returning from endemic countries. Worldwide, the disease is far from being eradicated. It is still highly prevalent in some popular travel destinations such as India. With the continued increase in Israelis traveling to (and in migrant workers arriving from) endemic regions, physicians in Israel should be well acquainted with the disease. Unfortunately, with the limited efficacy of the current typhoid vaccinations and the increase in multidrug-resistant strains, cases among travelers are expected to continue to increase and become ever challenging to treat. (+info)
Characterization of an outer membrane protein of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium that confers protection against typhoid.