A kinetic study of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum.
The activation kinetics of purified Rhodospirillum rubrum ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase were analysed. The equilibrium constant for activation by CO(2) was 600 micron and that for activation by Mg2+ was 90 micron, and the second-order activation constant for the reaction of CO(2) with inactive enzyme (k+1) was 0.25 X 10(-3)min-1 . micron-1. The latter value was considerably lower than the k+1 for higher-plant enzyme (7 X 10(-3)-10 X 10(-3)min-1 . micron-1). 6-Phosphogluconate had little effect on the active enzyme, and increased the extent of activation of inactive enzyme. Ribulose bisphosphate also increased the extent of activation and did not inhibit the rate of activation. This effect might have been mediated through a reaction product, 2-phosphoglycolic acid, which also stimulated the extent of activation of the enzyme. The active enzyme had a Km (CO2) of 300 micron-CO2, a Km (ribulose bisphosphate) of 11--18 micron-ribulose bisphosphate and a Vmax. of up to 3 mumol/min per mg of protein. These data are discussed in relation to the proposed model for activation and catalysis of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase. (+info)
acs1 of Haemophilus influenzae type a capsulation locus region II encodes a bifunctional ribulose 5-phosphate reductase- CDP-ribitol pyrophosphorylase.
The serotype-specific, 5.9-kb region II of the Haemophilus influenzae type a capsulation locus was sequenced and found to contain four open reading frames termed acs1 to acs4. Acs1 was 96% identical to H. influenzae type b Orf1, previously shown to have CDP-ribitol pyrophosphorylase activity (J. Van Eldere, L. Brophy, B. Loynds, P. Celis, I. Hancock, S. Carman, J. S. Kroll, and E. R. Moxon, Mol. Microbiol. 15:107-118, 1995). Low but significant homology to other pyrophosphorylases was only detected in the N-terminal part of Acs1, whereas the C-terminal part was homologous to several short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases, suggesting that Acs1 might be a bifunctional enzyme. To test this hypothesis, acs1 was cloned in an expression vector and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Cells expressing this protein displayed both ribitol 5-phosphate dehydrogenase and CDP-ribitol pyrophosphorylase activities, whereas these activities were not detectable in control cells. Acs1 was purified to near homogeneity and found to copurify with ribitol 5-phosphate dehydrogenase and CDP-ribitol pyrophosphorylase activities. These had superimposable elution profiles from DEAE-Sepharose and Blue-Sepharose columns. The dehydrogenase activity was specific for ribulose 5-phosphate and NADPH in one direction and for ribitol 5-phosphate and NADP+ in the other direction and was markedly stimulated by CTP. The pyrophosphorylase showed activity with CTP and ribitol 5-phosphate or arabitol 5-phosphate. We conclude that acs1 encodes a bifunctional enzyme that converts ribulose 5-phosphate into ribitol 5-phosphate and further into CDP-ribitol, which is the activated precursor form for incorporation of ribitol 5-phosphate into the H. influenzae type a capsular polysaccharide. (+info)
Crystal structure of carboxylase reaction-oriented ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from a thermophilic red alga, Galdieria partita.
Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco, EC 4.1.1. 39) obtained from a thermophilic red alga Galdieria partita has the highest specificity factor of 238 among the Rubiscos hitherto reported. Crystal structure of activated Rubisco from G. partita complexed with the reaction intermediate analogue, 2-carboxyarabinitol 1,5-bisphosphate (2-CABP) has been determined at 2.4-A resolution. Compared with other Rubiscos, different amino residues bring the structural differences in active site, which are marked around the binding sites of P-2 phosphate of 2-CABP. Especially, side chains of His-327 and Arg-295 show the significant differences from those of spinach Rubisco. Moreover, the side chains of Asn-123 and His-294 which are reported to bind the substrate, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate, form hydrogen bonds characteristic of Galdieria Rubisco. Small subunits of Galdieria Rubisco have more than 30 extra amino acid residues on the C terminus, which make up a hairpin-loop structure to form many interactions with the neighboring small subunits. When the structures of Galdieria and spinach Rubiscos are superimposed, the hairpin region of the neighboring small subunit in Galdieria enzyme and apical portion of insertion residues 52-63 characteristic of small subunits in higher plant enzymes are almost overlapped to each other. (+info)
Bacillus subtilis yckG and yckF encode two key enzymes of the ribulose monophosphate pathway used by methylotrophs, and yckH is required for their expression.
The ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) pathway is one of the metabolic pathways for the synthesis of compounds containing carbon-carbon bonds from one-carbon units and is found in many methane- and methanol-utilizing bacteria, which are known as methylotrophs. The characteristic enzymes of this pathway are 3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase (HPS) and 6-phospho-3-hexuloisomerase (PHI), neither of which was thought to exist outside methylotrophs. However, the presumed yckG gene product (YckG) of Bacillus subtilis shows a primary structure similar to that of methylotroph HPS (F. Kunst et al., Nature 390:249-256, 1997). We have also investigated the sequence similarity between the yckF gene product (YckF) and methylotroph PHI (Y. Sakai, R. Mitsui, Y. Katayama, H. Yanase, and N. Kato, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 176:125-130, 1999) and found that the yckG and yckF genes of B. subtilis express enzymatic activities of HPS and PHI, respectively. Both of these activities were concomitantly induced in B. subtilis by formaldehyde, with induction showing dependence on the yckH gene, but were not induced by methanol, formate, or methylamine. Disruption of either gene caused moderate sensitivity to formaldehyde, suggesting that these enzymes may act as a detoxification system for formaldehyde in B. subtilis. In conclusion, we found an active yckG (for HPS)-yckF (for PHI) gene structure (now named hxlA-hxlB) in a nonmethylotroph, B. subtilis, which inherently preserves the RuMP pathway. (+info)
A novel operon encoding formaldehyde fixation: the ribulose monophosphate pathway in the gram-positive facultative methylotrophic bacterium Mycobacterium gastri MB19.
A 4.2-kb PstI fragment harboring the gene cluster of the ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) pathway for formaldehyde fixation was identified in the chromosome of a gram-positive, facultative methylotroph, Mycobacterium gastri MB19, by using the coding region of 3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase (HPS) as the hybridization probe. The PstI fragment contained three complete open reading frames (ORFs) which encoded from the 5' end, a DNA-binding regulatory protein (rmpR), 6-phospho-3-hexuloisomerase (PHI; rmpB), and HPS (rmpA). Sequence analysis suggested that rmpA and rmpB constitute an operon, and Northern blot analysis of RNA extracted from bacteria grown under various conditions suggested that the expression of the two genes is similarly regulated at the transcriptional level. A similarity search revealed that the proteins encoded by rmpA and rmpB in M. gastri MB19 show high similarity to the unidentified proteins of nonmethylotrophic prokaryotes, including bacteria and anaerobic archaea. The clusters in the phylogenetic tree of the HPS protein of M. gastri MB19 and those in the phylogenetic tree of the PHI protein were nearly identical, which implies that these two formaldehyde-fixing genes evolved as a pair. These findings give new insight into the acquisition of the formaldehyde fixation pathway during the evolution of diverse microorganisms. (+info)
Analysis of two formaldehyde oxidation pathways in Methylobacillus flagellatus KT, a ribulose monophosphate cycle methylotroph.
The roles of cyclic formaldehyde oxidation via 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and linear oxidation via the tetrahydromethanopterin (H4MPT)-linked pathway were assessed in an obligate methylotroph, Methylobacillus flagellatus KT, by cloning, sequencing and mutating two chromosomal regions containing genes encoding enzymes specifically involved in these pathways: 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and methenyl H4MPT cyclohydrolase (gndA, zwf and mch). No null mutants were obtained in gndA or zwf, implying that the cyclic oxidation of formaldehyde is required for C1 metabolism in this obligate methylotroph, probably as the main energy-generating pathway. In contrast, null mutants were generated in mch, indicating that the H4MPT-linked pathway is dispensable. These mutants showed enhanced sensitivity to formaldehyde, suggesting that this pathway plays a secondary physiological role in this methylotroph. This function is in contrast to Methylobacterium extorquens AM1, in which the H4MPT-linked pathway is essential. (+info)
Kinetic properties of the glucose-6-phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenases from Corynebacterium glutamicum and their application for predicting pentose phosphate pathway flux in vivo.
The glucose-6-phosphate (Glc6P) and 6-phosphogluconate (6PG) dehydrogenases of the amino-acid-producing bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum were purified to homogeneity and kinetically characterized. The Glc6P dehydrogenase was a heteromultimeric complex, which consists of Zwf and OpcA subunits. The product inhibition pattern of the Glc6P dehydrogenase was consistent with an ordered bi-bi mechanism. The 6PG dehydrogenase was found to operate according to a Theorell-Chance ordered bi-ter mechanism. Both enzymes were inhibited by NADPH and the 6PG dehydrogenase additionally by ATP, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (Fru1,6P2), D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (Gra3P), erythrose 4-phosphate and ribulose 5-phosphate (Rib5P). The inhibition by NADPH was considered to be most important, with inhibition constants of around 25 microM for both enzymes. Intracellular metabolite concentrations were determined in two isogenic strains of C. glutamicum with plasmid-encoded NAD- and NADP-dependent glutamate dehydrogenases. NADP+ and NADPH levels were between 130 microM and 290 microM, which is very much higher than the respective Km and Ki values. The Glc6P concentration was around 500 microM in both strains. The in vivo fluxes through the oxidative part of the pentose phosphate pathway calculated on the basis of intracellular metabolite concentrations and the kinetic constants of the purified enzymes determined in vitro were in agreement with the same fluxes determined by NMR after 13C-labelling. From the derived kinetic model thus validated, it is concluded that the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway in C. glutamicum is mainly regulated by the ratio of NADPH and NADP+ concentrations and the specific enzyme activities of both dehydrogenases. (+info)
Is there scope for improving balance between RuBP-regeneration and carboxylation capacities in wheat at elevated CO2?
Carboxylation and RuBP-regeneration capacities, which determine light-saturated photosynthetic rate, were analysed in leaves of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Minaret) grown under different atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCa) and N supply regimes. Capacities were estimated from a large number of gas exchange, Rubisco and ATP-synthase content measurements, and from these, the pCa at which the two capacities are equal was derived, to allow direct comparison with growth pCa. Acclimation of the balance between the two capacities to growth at elevated pCa in wheat was only partial and appears to occur mostly in older flag leaves and at low N. However, in contrast to conclusions drawn from previous analyses of these data, there was evidence of a specific effect of growth at 70 Pa pCa, where carboxylation capacity is reduced more than RuBP-regeneration capacity for a given leaf N content. A model was used to estimate the effects of fluctuations in PPFD and temperature in the growth environment on the optimal balance between these capacities. This showed that the observed balance between carboxylation and RuBP-regeneration capacities in young wheat leaves could be consistent with adaptation to the current, or even the preindustrial pCa. (+info)