Twelfth rib resection as an approach for portal vein cannulation in sheep.
A surgical technique involving resection of the twelfth rib was used to insert silastic cannulas into the portal veins of three sheep to study amino acid metabolism. Good exposure to the vein was achieved by this method although it required positive ventilation due to the penetration of the thoracic cavity. All cannulas were buried subcutaneously and exteriorized near the dorsal midline. This facilitated continuous infusion into the portal cannula without disturbing cannula placement. (+info)
Pathogenetic sequence for aneurysm revealed in mice underexpressing fibrillin-1.
Dissecting aortic aneurysm is the hallmark of Marfan syndrome (MFS) and the result of mutations in fibrillin-1, the major constituent of elastin-associated extracellular microfibrils. It is yet to be established whether dysfunction of fibrillin-1 perturbs the ability of the elastic vessel wall to sustain hemodynamic stress by disrupting microfibrillar assembly, by impairing the homeostasis of established elastic fibers, or by a combination of both mechanisms. The pathogenic sequence responsible for the mechanical collapse of the elastic lamellae in the aortic wall is also unknown. Targeted mutation of the mouse fibrillin-1 gene has recently suggested that deficiency of fibrillin-1 reduces tissue homeostasis rather than elastic fiber formation. Here we describe another gene-targeting mutation, mgR, which shows that underexpression of fibrillin-1 similarly leads to MFS-like manifestations. Histopathological analysis of mgR/mgR specimens implicates medial calcification, the inflammatory-fibroproliferative response, and inflammation-mediated elastolysis in the natural history of dissecting aneurysm. More generally, the phenotypic severity associated with various combinations of normal and mutant fibrillin-1 alleles suggests a threshold phenomenon for the functional collapse of the vessel wall that is based on the level and the integrity of microfibrils. (+info)
Osteochondroma of the first rib presenting as a prominent clavicle. A report of 2 cases.
We describe and discuss two patients with osteochondromas of the first rib which presented as prominence of the medial end of the clavicle. (+info)
Prenatal sonographic features of spondylocostal dysostosis and diaphragmatic hernia in the first trimester.
Spondylocostal dysostosis is a congenital disorder characterized by multiple malformations of the vertebrae and ribs. We describe the sonographic features of an affected fetus at 12 and 14 weeks of gestation. The fetus had thoracic scoliosis, multiple vertebral and rib malformations and a grossly dilated stomach that had herniated into the chest through a left-sided diaphragmatic hernia. The stomach spanned the whole length of the fetal trunk. (+info)
Rib truncations and fusions in the Sp2H mouse reveal a role for Pax3 in specification of the ventro-lateral and posterior parts of the somite.
The splotch (Pax3) mouse mutant serves as a model for developmental defects of several types, including defective migration of dermomyotomal cells to form the limb musculature. Here, we describe abnormalities of the ribs, neural arches, and acromion in Sp2H homozygous embryos, indicating a widespread dependence of lateral somite development on Pax3 function. Moreover, the intercostal and body wall muscles, derivatives of the ventrolateral myotome, are also abnormal in Sp2H homozygotes. Pax3 is expressed in the dermomyotome, but not in either the sclerotome or the myotome, raising the possibility that Pax3-dependent inductive influences from the dermomyotome are necessary for early specification of lateral sclerotome and myotome. Support for this idea comes from analysis of gene expression markers of lateral sclerotome (tenascin-C and scleraxis) and myotome (myogenin, MyoD, and Myf5). All exhibit ventrally truncated domains of expression in Sp2H homozygotes, potentially accounting for the rib and intercostal muscle truncations. In contrast, the medial sclerotomal marker Pax1 is expressed normally in mutant embryos, arguing that Pax3 is not required for development of the medial sclerotome. Most of the somitic markers show ectopic expression in anteroposterior and mediolateral dimensions, suggesting a loss of definition of somite boundaries in splotch and explaining the rib and muscle fusions. An exception is Myf5, which is not ectopically expressed in Sp2H homozygotes, consistent with the previous suggestion that Pax3 and Myf5 function in different pathways of skeletal myogenesis. PDGFalpha and its receptor are candidates for mediating signalling between myotome and sclerotome. We find that both genes are misexpressed in Sp2H embryos, suggesting that PDGFalpha/PDGFRalpha may function downstream of Pax3, accounting for the close similarities between the splotch and Patch mutant phenotypes. Our findings point to additional regulatory functions for the Pax3 transcription factor, apart from those already demonstrated for development of the neural tube, neural crest, and dermomyotome. (+info)
Transgenic rescue of congenital heart disease and spina bifida in Splotch mice.
Pax3-deficient Splotch mice display neural tube defects and an array of neural crest related abnormalities including defects in the cardiac outflow tract, dorsal root ganglia and pigmentation. Pax3 is expressed in neural crest cells that emerge from the dorsal neural tube. Pax3 is also expressed in the somites, through which neural crest cells migrate, where it is required for hypaxial muscle development. Homozygous mutant Splotch embryos die by embryonic day 14. We have utilized the proximal 1.6 kb Pax3 promoter and upstream regulatory elements to engineer transgenic mice reproducing endogenous Pax3 expression in neural tube and neural crest, but not the somite. Over expression of Pax3 in these tissues reveals no discernible phenotype. Breeding of transgenic mice onto a Splotch background demonstrates that neural tube and neural crest expression of Pax3 is sufficient to rescue neural tube closure, cardiac development and other neural crest related defects. Transgenic Splotch mice survive until birth at which time they succumb to respiratory failure secondary to absence of a muscular diaphragm. Limb muscles are also absent. These results indicate that regulatory elements sufficient for functional expression of Pax3 required for cardiac development and neural tube closure are contained within the region 1.6 kb upstream of the Pax3 transcriptional start site. In addition, the single Pax3 isoform used for this transgene is sufficient to execute these developmental processes. Although the extracellular matrix and the environment of the somites through which neural crest migrates is known to influence neural crest behavior, our results indicate that Pax3-deficient somites are capable of supporting proper neural crest migration and function suggesting a cell autonomous role for Pax3 in neural crest. (+info)
Age-related bone loss: relationship between age and regional bone mineral density.
We assessed the changes in regional bone mineral density according to age and examined the relationship between various regional bone mineral densities. The study was conducted in 985 Japanese women divided into < 50-years group (n = 435) and > or = 50 years group (n = 550). The total body bone mineral density and that of the head, arm, leg, thoracic (T)-spine, lumbar (L)-spine, ribs, and pelvis were measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. There was a significant generalized reduction of bone mineral density in all regions after the age of 50 years. The most marked age-related decrease was observed in the L-spine. Bone mineral densities in all regions significantly correlated to each other in both age groups, but the degree of significance varied among regions. The relationship between bone mineral density of the L-spine and that of T-spine regions was the most significant in both groups. In the < 50-years group, the correlation between bone mineral density of the pelvis and that of L-spine and T-spine was the highest, followed by that between the pelvis and the leg. On the other hand, in the > or = 50-years group, the correlation between bone mineral density of the pelvis and that of the leg was the highest, but not the L-spine or T-spine. Since spine measurements are affected by vertebral deformity and/or aortic calcification, our findings suggest the pelvis may be a useful region for screening measurements of bone mineral density, especially in older women. (+info)
A gene for autosomal recessive spondylocostal dysostosis maps to 19q13.1-q13.3.
In spondylocostal dysostosis (SD), vertebral-segmentation defects are associated with rib anomalies. This results in short-trunk short stature, nonprogressive kyphoscoliosis, and radiological features of multiple hemivertebrae and rib fusions. SD can be familial, and both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive (AR) inheritance have been reported, but no genes have been identified or localized for nonsyndromic SD in humans. We performed genomewide scanning by homozygosity mapping in a large consanguineous ARSD Arab Israeli family with six definitely affected members. Significant linkage was found to chromosome 19q13, with a LOD score of 6.9. This was confirmed in a second Pakistani family with three affected members, with a LOD score of 2.4. The combined-haplotype data identify a critical region between D19S570 and D19S908, an interval of 8.5 cM on 19q13.1-19q13.3. This is the first study to localize a gene for nonsyndromic SD. ARSD is clinically heterogeneous and is likely to result from mutations in developmental genes or from regulating transcription factors. Identification of these genes will improve the understanding of the molecular processes contributing to both normal and abnormal human vertebral development. (+info)