Leucine regulates translation of specific mRNAs in L6 myoblasts through mTOR-mediated changes in availability of eIF4E and phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6.
Regulation of translation of mRNAs coding for specific proteins plays an important role in controlling cell growth, differentiation, and transformation. Two proteins have been implicated in the regulation of specific mRNA translation: eukaryotic initiation factor eIF4E and ribosomal protein S6. Increased phosphorylation of eIF4E as well as its overexpression are associated with stimulation of translation of mRNAs with highly structured 5'-untranslated regions. Similarly, phosphorylation of S6 results in preferential translation of mRNAs containing an oligopyrimidine tract at the 5'-end of the message. In the present study, leucine stimulated phosphorylation of the eIF4E-binding protein, 4E-BP1, in L6 myoblasts, resulting in dissociation of eIF4E from the inactive eIF4E.4E-BP1 complex. The increased availability of eIF4E was associated with a 1.6-fold elevation in ornithine decarboxylase relative to global protein synthesis. Leucine also stimulated phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein S6 kinase, p70(S6k), resulting in increased phosphorylation of S6. Hyperphosphorylation of S6 was associated with a 4-fold increase in synthesis of elongation factor eEF1A. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of the protein kinase mTOR, prevented all of the leucine-induced effects. Thus, leucine acting through an mTOR-dependent pathway stimulates the translation of specific mRNAs both by increasing the availability of eIF4E and by stimulating phosphorylation of S6. (+info)
Resistance of ribosomal protein mRNA translation to protein synthesis shutoff induced by poliovirus.
Poliovirus infection induces an overall inhibition of host protein synthesis, although some mRNAs continue to be translated, suggesting different translation requirements for cellular mRNAs. It is known that ribosomal protein mRNAs are translationally regulated and that the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 is involved in the regulation. Here, we report that the translation of ribosomal protein mRNAs resists poliovirus infection and correlates with an increase in p70(s6k) activity and phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6. (+info)
Structure and stability of recombinant protein depend on the extra N-terminal methionine residue: S6 permutein from direct and fusion expression systems.
Two permuted variants of S6 ribosomal protein were obtained in direct and fusion expression systems, respectively. The product of direct expression contained the extra N-terminal methionine residue. The structural properties and conformational stability of these permuteins were compared using 1-D (1)H-NMR, circular dichroism, intrinsic fluorescence, differential scanning calorimetry and resistance to urea-induced unfolding. A pronounced difference in all the parameters studied has been demonstrated. This means that the structure of recombinant protein can be sensitive to peculiarities of the expression and purification procedures, leading particularly to the presence or absence of the Met at the first position in the target protein sequence. (+info)
Structure of the S15,S6,S18-rRNA complex: assembly of the 30S ribosome central domain.
The crystal structure of a 70-kilodalton ribonucleoprotein complex from the central domain of the Thermus thermophilus 30S ribosomal subunit was solved at 2.6 angstrom resolution. The complex consists of a 104-nucleotide RNA fragment composed of two three-helix junctions that lie at the end of a central helix, and the ribosomal proteins S15, S6, and S18. S15 binds the ribosomal RNA early in the assembly of the 30S ribosomal subunit, stabilizing a conformational reorganization of the two three-helix junctions that creates the RNA fold necessary for subsequent binding of S6 and S18. The structure of the complex demonstrates the central role of S15-induced reorganization of central domain RNA for the subsequent steps of ribosome assembly. (+info)
Proliferation, but not growth, blocked by conditional deletion of 40S ribosomal protein S6.
Because ribosome biogenesis plays an essential role in cell proliferation, control mechanisms may have evolved to recognize lesions in this critical anabolic process. To test this possibility, we conditionally deleted the gene encoding 40S ribosomal protein S6 in the liver of adult mice. Unexpectedly, livers from fasted animals deficient in S6 grew in response to nutrients even though biogenesis of 40S ribosomes was abolished. However, liver cells failed to proliferate or induce cyclin E expression after partial hepatectomy, despite formation of active cyclin D-CDK4 complexes. These results imply that abrogation of 40S ribosome biogenesis may induce a checkpoint control that prevents cell cycle progression. (+info)
Cell type specificity and mechanism of control of a gene may be reverted in different strains of Dictyostelium discoideum.
Twelve genes which are expressed exclusively in pre-spore cells of Dictyostelium strain AX3 are expressed exclusively in pre-stalk cells of strain AX2. One gene has the opposite behavior: it is expressed in pre-stalk cells in AX3 and in pre-spore cells in AX2. The change in cell type specificity involves a change in the mechanism of control of gene expression. When they are expressed in pre-stalk cells, genes are controlled at the level of transcription, whilst in pre-spore cells, they are controlled at the level of mRNA stability. Genes expressed in pre-stalk cells in strain AX2, fused with an AX2 pre-spore specific promoter, become regulated at the level of mRNA stability. These findings indicate that at least a group of pre-stalk mRNAs possess the cis-destabilizing element typical of pre-spore mRNAs, though they are not destabilized in disaggregated cells. This is due to the fact that ribosomal protein S6, phosphorylation of which is responsible for controlling the stability of pre-spore mRNAs, is not dephosphorylated in disaggregated pre-stalk cells. These cells lack an S6 phosphatase activity which has been purified from disaggregated pre-spore cells. (+info)
Glucocorticoids abate p70(S6k) and eIF4E function in L6 skeletal myoblasts.
The catabolic properties of glucocorticoid hormones are largely attributable to dual regulation of protein degradation and synthesis. With regard to the latter, glucocorticoids modulate the translational machinery, namely that component functional in translation initiation. This investigation revealed that in L6 myoblasts, dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid, deactivated the ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70(S6k)) within 4 h, as evidenced by diminished phosphorylation of its physiological substrate, the 40S ribosomal protein S6. This deactivation correlated with dephosphorylation of p70(S6k) at Thr(389), whereas phosphorylation of Ser(411) was unaffected. Furthermore, glucocorticoid administration induced dephosphorylation of the cap-dependent translational repressor, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), thereby facilitating conjunction of the inhibitor and eIF4E. The mechanism of action is reminiscent of classical transcriptional regulation by steroid hormone receptors in that these effects were preceded by a temporal lag and were sensitive to inhibitors of glucocorticoid receptor function as well as transcriptional and translational inhibition. Okadaic acid and calyculin A corrected the dexamethasone-induced dephosphorylation of p70(S6k) and 4E-BP1, implicating a PP1- and/or PP2A-like protein phosphatase(s) in the observed phenomena. Hence, glucocorticoids attenuate distal constituents of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase signaling pathway and thereby encumber the protein synthetic apparatus. (+info)
Structure of yeast poly(A) polymerase alone and in complex with 3'-dATP.
Polyadenylate [poly(A)] polymerase (PAP) catalyzes the addition of a polyadenosine tail to almost all eukaryotic messenger RNAs (mRNAs). The crystal structure of the PAP from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Pap1) has been solved to 2.6 angstroms, both alone and in complex with 3'-deoxyadenosine triphosphate (3'-dATP). Like other nucleic acid polymerases, Pap1 is composed of three domains that encircle the active site. The arrangement of these domains, however, is quite different from that seen in polymerases that use a template to select and position their incoming nucleotides. The first two domains are functionally analogous to polymerase palm and fingers domains. The third domain is attached to the fingers domain and is known to interact with the single-stranded RNA primer. In the nucleotide complex, two molecules of 3'-dATP are bound to Pap1. One occupies the position of the incoming base, prior to its addition to the mRNA chain. The other is believed to occupy the position of the 3' end of the mRNA primer. (+info)