(1/533) Evidence on the conformation of HeLa-cell 5.8S ribosomal ribonucleic acid from the reaction of specific cytidine residues with sodium bisulphite.
The reaction of HeLa-cell 5.8S rRNA with NaHSO3 under conditions in which exposed cytidine residues are deaminated to uridine was studied. It was possible to estimate the reactivities of most of the 46 cytidine residues in the nucleotide sequence by comparing 'fingerprints' of the bisulphite-treated RNA with those of untreated RNA. The findings were consistent with the main features of the secondary-structure model for mammalian 5.85S rRNA proposed by Nazar, Sitz, & Busch [J. Biol. Chem (1975) 250, 8591--8597]. Five out of six regions that are depicted in the model as single-stranded loops contain cytidine residues that are reactive towards bisulphite at 25 degrees C (the other loop contains no cytidine). The cytidine residue nearest to the 3'-terminus is also reactive. Several cytidines residues that are internally located within proposed double-helical regions show little or no reactivity towards bisulphite, but the cytidine residues of several C.G pairs at the ends of helical regions show some reactivity, and one of the proposed loops appears to contain six nucleotides, rather than the minimum of four suggested by the primary structure. Two cytidine residues that are thought to be 'looped out' by small helix imperfections also show some reactivity. (+info)
(2/533) Simplified methods for pKa and acid pH-dependent stability estimation in proteins: removing dielectric and counterion boundaries.
Much computational research aimed at understanding ionizable group interactions in proteins has focused on numerical solutions of the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation, incorporating protein exclusion zones for solvent and counterions in a continuum model. Poor agreement with measured pKas and pH-dependent stabilities for a (protein, solvent) relative dielectric boundary of (4,80) has lead to the adoption of an intermediate (20,80) boundary. It is now shown that a simple Debye-Huckel (DH) calculation, removing both the low dielectric and counterion exclusion regions associated with protein, is equally effective in general pKa calculations. However, a broad-based discrepancy to measured pH-dependent stabilities is maintained in the absence of ionizable group interactions in the unfolded state. A simple model is introduced for these interactions, with a significantly improved match to experiment that suggests a potential utility in predicting and analyzing the acid pH-dependence of protein stability. The methods are applied to the relative pH-dependent stabilities of the pore-forming domains of colicins A and N. The results relate generally to the well-known preponderance of surface ionizable groups with solvent-mediated interactions. Although numerical PB solutions do not currently have a significant advantage for overall pKa estimations, development based on consideration of microscopic solvation energetics in tandem with the continuum model could combine the large deltapKas of a subset of ionizable groups with the overall robustness of the DH model. (+info)
(3/533) Sequence and location of large RNase T1 oligonucleotides in bacteriophage Qbeta RNA.
Twenty-nine oligonucleotides, 11 to 26 nucleotides in length, arising by complete RNase T1 digestion of bacteriophage Qbeta RNA and isolated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, were sequenced. Their location within the genome was established with two methods. (a) In vitro synthesis of Qbeta RNA plus strands was started synchronously, using minus strands as template and nucleoside [alpha-32P]triphosphates as substrate; after various times, the reaction was stopped and the length of the products formed was correlated with their content of T1 oligonucleotides. (b) Qbeta [32P]RNA was elongated with poly(A) using terminal riboadenylate transferase; after mild treatment with alkali the fragments were fractionated by size and the poly(A)-containing molecules of each size class were isolated by chromatography on poly(U)-Sephadex and assayed for T1 oligonucleotides. The oligonucleotides in the 5' region were localized more precisely with method a, those near the 3' end with method b; in the middle region, the results of the two sets of analyses confirmed each other. The use of these oligonucleotides in the sequence determination of Qbeta RNA is discussed. (+info)
(4/533) A hybridization procedure for the isolation of specific RNA segments applied to the analysis of bacteriophage Qbeta RNA.
A method for the isolation of RNA fragments originating from defined regions of bacteriophage Qbeta RNA minus strands is described. Large RNase T1 oligonucleotides were isolated on a preparative scale from Qbeta RNA. The nucleotide sequences (13 to 26 nucleotides) and map positions of these oligonucleotides were known from previous work (Billeter, M. A. (1978) J. Biol. Chem. 253, 8381-8389). After addition of AMP residues (50 in the average) using terminal adenylate transferase, these pure oligonucleotides were hybridized to 32P-labeled Qbeta RNA minus strands synthesized in vitro. Fragments in the size range of 100 to 500 nucleotides were then generated by partial digestion with RNase T1. Fragments hybridized to such oligonucleotides were recovered by chromatography on poly(U)-Sephadex and then resolved according to their size by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The specificity and reproducibility of the method as well as its suitability for the sequence analysis of Qbeta RNA was verified by using in particular a linker oligonucleotide derived from a Qbeta RNA region near the 3' end. The sequence catalogues of the RNase T1 and RNase A oligonucleotides of two fragments isolated in this way, 202 and 310 nucleotides in length, were established and all fragments isolated were shown to contain a sequence complementary to the linker oligonucleotide. (+info)
(5/533) Dissection of the structural and functional role of a conserved hydration site in RNase T1.
The reoccurrence of water molecules in crystal structures of RNase T1 was investigated. Five waters were found to be invariant in RNase T1 as well as in six other related fungal RNases. The structural, dynamical, and functional characteristics of one of these conserved hydration sites (WAT1) were analyzed by protein engineering, X-ray crystallography, and (17)O and 2H nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD). The position of WAT1 and its surrounding hydrogen bond network are unaffected by deletions of two neighboring side chains. In the mutant Thr93Gln, the Gln93N epsilon2 nitrogen replaces WAT1 and participates in a similar hydrogen bond network involving Cys6, Asn9, Asp76, and Thr91. The ability of WAT1 to form four hydrogen bonds may explain why evolution has preserved a water molecule, rather than a side-chain atom, at the center of this intricate hydrogen bond network. Comparison of the (17)O NMRD profiles from wild-type and Thr93Gln RNase T1 yield a mean residence time of 7 ns at 27 degrees C and an orientational order parameter of 0.45. The effects of mutations around WAT1 on the kinetic parameters of RNase T1 are small but significant and probably relate to the dynamics of the active site. (+info)
(6/533) Expression of the mouse pre-T cell receptor alpha gene is controlled by an upstream region containing a transcriptional enhancer.
The pre-T cell receptor alpha (pTalpha) protein is a critical component of the pre-T cell receptor complex in early thymocytes. The expression of the pTalpha gene is one of the earliest markers of the T cell lineage and occurs exclusively in pre-T cells. To investigate the molecular basis of thymocyte-specific gene expression, we searched for the genomic elements regulating transcription of the mouse pTalpha gene. We now report that expression of the pTalpha gene is primarily controlled by an upstream genomic region, which can drive thymocyte-specific expression of a marker gene in transgenic mice. Within this region, we have identified two specific DNase-hypersensitive sites corresponding to a proximal promoter and an upstream transcriptional enhancer. The pTalpha enhancer appears to function preferentially in pre-T cell lines and binds multiple nuclear factors, including YY1. The enhancer also contains two G-rich stretches homologous to a critical region of the thymocyte-specific lck proximal promoter. Here we show that these sites bind a common nuclear factor and identify it as the zinc finger protein ZBP-89. Our data establish a novel experimental model for thymocyte-specific gene expression and suggest an important role for ZBP-89 in T cell development. (+info)
(7/533) The paradox between m values and deltaCp's for denaturation of ribonuclease T1 with disulfide bonds intact and broken.
Urea-induced denaturations of RNase T1 and reduced and carboxyamidated RNase T1 (RTCAM) as a function of temperature were analyzed using the linear extrapolation method, and denaturation m values, deltaCp, deltaH, deltaS, and deltaG quantities were determined. Because both deltaCp and m values are believed to reflect the protein surface area newly exposed on denaturation, the prediction is that the ratio of m values for RNase T1 and RTCAM should equal the deltaCp ratio for the two proteins. This is not the case, for it is found that the m value of RTCAM is 1.5 times that of RNase T1, while the denaturation deltaCp's for the two proteins are identical. The paradox of why the two parameters, m and deltaCp, are not equivalent in their behavior is of importance in the interpretations of their respective molecular-level meanings. It is found that the measured denaturation deltaCp's are consistent with deltaCp's calculated on the basis of empirical relationships between the change in surface area on denaturation (deltaASA), and that the measured m value of RNase T1 agrees with m calculated from empirical data relating m to deltaASA. However, the measured m of RTCAM is so much out of line with its calculated m as to call into question the validity of always equating m with surface area newly exposed on denaturation. (+info)
(8/533) Changes in Rous sarcoma virus RNA secondary structure near the primer binding site upon tRNATrp primer annealing.
Predicted secondary-structure elements encompassing the primer binding site in the 5' untranslated region of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) RNA play an integral role in multiple viral replications steps including reverse transcription, DNA integration, and RNA packaging (A. Aiyar, D. Cobrinik, Z. Ge, H. J. Kung, and J. Leis, J. Virol. 66:2464-2472, 1992; D. Cobrinik, A. Aiyar, Z. Ge, M. Katzman, H. Huang, and J. Leis, J. Virol. 65:3864-3872, 1991; J. T. Miller, Z. Ge, S. Morris, K. Das, and J. Leis, J. Virol. 71:7648-7656, 1997). These elements include the U5-Leader stem, U5-IR stem-loop, and U5-TPsiC interaction region. Limited digestion of the 5' untranslated region of wild-type and mutant RSV RNAs with structure- and/or sequence-specific RNases detects the presence of the U5-Leader stem and the U5-IR stem-loop. When a tRNATrp primer is annealed to wild-type RNAs in vitro, limited nuclease mapping indicates that the U5-IR stem becomes partially unwound. This is not observed when mutant RNAs with altered U5-IR stem-loop structures are substituted for wild-type RNAs. The U5-Leader stem also becomes destabilized when the tRNA primer is annealed to either wild-type or mutant RNA fragments. Nuclease mapping studies of tRNATrp, as well as the viral RNA, indicate that the U5-TPsiC helix does form in vitro upon primer annealing. Collectively, these data suggest that the various structural elements near the RSV primer binding site undergo significant changes during the process of primer annealing. (+info)