Comparison of three commercial systems for identification of yeasts commonly isolated in the clinical microbiology laboratory.
We evaluated three commercial systems (RapID Yeast Plus System; Innovative Diagnostic Systems, Norcross, Ga.; API 20C Aux; bioMerieux-Vitek, Hazelwood, Mo.; and Vitek Yeast Biochemical Card, bioMerieux-Vitek) against an auxinographic and microscopic morphologic reference method for the ability to identify yeasts commonly isolated in our clinical microbiology laboratory. Two-hundred one yeast isolates were compared in the study. The RapID Yeast Plus System was significantly better than either API 20C Aux (193 versus 167 correct identifications; P < 0.0001) or the Vitek Yeast Biochemical Card (193 versus 173 correct identifications; P = 0.003) for obtaining correct identifications to the species level without additional testing. There was no significant difference between results obtained with API 20C Aux and the Vitek Yeast Biochemical Card system (P = 0.39). The API 20C Aux system did not correctly identify any of the Candida krusei isolates (n = 23) without supplemental testing and accounted for the major differences between the API 20C Aux and RapID Yeast Plus systems. Overall, the RapID Yeast Plus System was easy to use and is a good system for the routine identification of clinically relevant yeasts. (+info
Simple strategy for direct identification of medically important yeast species from positive blood culture vials.
We compared direct inoculation of the Auxacolor yeast identification system from positive blood culture vials to standard identification with the API 20C AUX (API 20C), using 44 prospectively collected clinical specimens and 25 seeded blood culture vials. Direct inoculation of the Auxacolor system was accurate and more rapid than standard identification with the API 20C. (+info
Variation in Microbial Identification System accuracy for yeast identification depending on commercial source of Sabouraud dextrose agar.
The accuracy of the Microbial Identification System (MIS; MIDI, Inc. ) for identification of yeasts to the species level was compared by using 438 isolates grown on prepoured BBL Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and prepoured Remel SDA. Correct identification was observed for 326 (74%) of the yeasts cultured on BBL SDA versus only 214 (49%) of yeasts grown on Remel SDA (P < 0.001). The commercial source of the SDA used in the MIS procedure significantly influences the system's accuracy. (+info
Comparative study of seven commercial yeast identification systems.
AIMS: To compare the performance of seven commercial yeast identification methods with that of a reference method, and to compare the costs of the commercial kits. METHODS: Clinical yeast isolates (n = 52), comprising 19 species, were identified using Vitek, Api ID 32C, Api 20C AUX, Yeast Star, Auxacolor, RapID Yeast Plus system, and Api Candida and compared with a reference method which employed conventional tests. RESULTS: The percentage of correctly identified isolates varied between 59.6% and 80.8%. Overall, the highest performance was obtained with Api Candida (78.8%) and Auxacolor (80.8%). Among germ tube negative yeast isolates, Auxacolor and Api Candida both identified 93.1% of isolates correctly. All systems failed to identify C norvegensis, C catenulata, C haemulonii, and C dubliniensis. In comparison with Auxacolor, the Api Candida is less expensive and requires less bench time. CONCLUSIONS: Auxacolor and Api Candida appeared to be the most useful systems for identification of germ tube negative yeast isolates in clinical microbiology laboratories, although one should be aware that several germ tube negative Candida species cannot be identified by these systems. (+info
Studies on the reaction mechanism of Rhodotorula gracilis D-amino-acid oxidase. Role of the highly conserved Tyr-223 on substrate binding and catalysis.
We have studied D-amino-acid oxidase from Rhodotorula gracilis by site-directed mutagenesis for the purpose of determining the presence or absence of residues having a possible role in acid/base catalysis. Tyr-223, one of the very few conserved residues among D-amino-acid oxidases, has been mutated to phenylalanine and to serine. Both mutants are active catalysts in turnover with D-alanine, and they are reduced by D-alanine slightly faster than wild-type enzyme. The Tyr-223 --> Phe mutant is virtually identical to the wild-type enzyme, whereas the Tyr-223 --> Ser mutant exhibits 60-fold slower substrate binding and at least 800-fold slower rate of product release relative to wild-type. These data eliminate Tyr-223 as an active-site acid/base catalyst. These results underline the importance of Tyr-223 for substrate binding and exemplify the importance of steric interactions in RgDAAO catalysis. (+info
Role of arginine 285 in the active site of Rhodotorula gracilis D-amino acid oxidase. A site-directed mutagenesis study.
Arg(285), one of the very few conserved residues in the active site of d-amino acid oxidases, has been mutated to lysine, glutamine, aspartate, and alanine in the enzyme from the yeast Rhodotorula gracilis (RgDAAO). The mutated proteins are all catalytically competent. Mutations of Arg(285) result in an increase ( approximately 300-fold) of K(m) for the d-amino acid and in a large decrease ( approximately 500-fold) of turnover number. Stopped-flow analysis shows that the decrease in turnover is paralleled by a similar decrease in the rate of flavin reduction (k(2)), the latter still being the rate-limiting step of the reaction. In agreement with data from the protein crystal structure, loss of the guanidinium group of Arg(285) in the mutated DAAOs drastically reduces the binding of several carboxylic acids (e.g. benzoate). These results highlight the importance of this active site residue in the precise substrate orientation, a main factor in this redox reaction. Furthermore, Arg(285) DAAO mutants have spectral properties similar to those of the wild-type enzyme, but show a low degree of stabilization of the flavin semiquinone and a change in the redox properties of the free enzyme. From this, we can unexpectedly conclude that Arg(285) in the free enzyme form is involved in the stabilization of the negative charge on the N(1)-C(2)=O locus of the isoalloxazine ring of the flavin. We also suggest that the residue undergoes a conformational change in order to bind the carboxylate portion of the substrate/ligand in the complexed enzyme. (+info
Fungal colonization and biodeterioration of plasticized polyvinyl chloride.
Significant substratum damage can occur when plasticized PVC (pPVC) is colonized by microorganisms. We investigated microbial colonization of pPVC in an in situ, longitudinal study. Pieces of pPVC containing the plasticizers dioctyl phthalate and dioctyl adipate (DOA) were exposed to the atmosphere for up to 2 years. Fungal and bacterial populations were quantified, and colonizing fungi were identified by rRNA gene sequencing and morphological characteristics. Aureobasidium pullulans was the principal colonizing fungus, establishing itself on the pPVC between 25 and 40 weeks of exposure. A group of yeasts and yeast-like fungi, including Rhodotorula aurantiaca and Kluyveromyces spp., established themselves on the pPVC much later (after 80 weeks of exposure). Numerically, these organisms dominated A. pullulans after 95 weeks, with a mean viable count +/- standard error of 1,000 +/- 200 yeast CFU cm(-2), compared to 390 +/- 50 A. pullulans CFU cm(-2). No bacterial colonization was observed. We also used in vitro tests to characterize the deteriogenic properties of fungi isolated from the pPVC. All strains of A. pullulans tested could grow with the intact pPVC formulation as the sole source of carbon, degrade the plasticizer DOA, produce extracellular esterase, and cause weight loss of the substratum during growth in vitro. In contrast, several yeast isolates could not grow on pPVC or degrade DOA. These results suggest that microbial succession may occur during the colonization of pPVC and that A. pullulans is critical to the establishment of a microbial community on pPVC. (+info
A comparison of analytical methods for the numerical taxonomy of yeasts.
Four methods of numerical analysis were tested to assess the taxonomic relationships of species of yeasts in 20 genera using characters obtained from standard descriptions. Relationships varied according to the analytical method employed. It is suggested that a reduction in the present number of genera may be necessary to justify the taxonomic rank of genus. (+info