One-pot preparation of chiral beta-amino esters by rhodium-catalyzed three-components coupling reaction. (9/243)

Chiral beta-amino esters are synthesized in one-pot from three components, amines, aldehydes, and ethyl bromoacetate, under the rhodium-catalyzed Reformatsky-type reaction condition, where complete diastereoselection is achieved in the nucleophilic addition step of ethyl bromoacetate to the imines prepared in  (+info)

The use of dimetal building blocks in convergent syntheses of large arrays. (10/243)

Within the broad field called "supramolecular chemistry," there is a sector that is based on the use of metal atoms or ions as key elements in promoting the assembly and dictating the main structural features of the supramolecular products. Considerable success has been achieved by using MM bonded dimetal entities in this role. Metal-metal bonded cationic complexes of the [M(2)(DAniF)(n)(MeCN)(8-2n)]((4-n)+) type, where M = Mo or Rh and DAniF is an N,N'-di-p-anisylformamidinate anion, have been used as subunit precursors and then linked by various equatorial and axial bridging groups such as polycarboxylate anions, polypyridyls, and polynitriles. Characterization of the products by single-crystal x-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, NMR, and other spectroscopic techniques has revealed the presence of discrete tetranuclear (pairs or loops), hexanuclear (triangles), octanuclear (squares), and dodecanuclear (cages) species and one-, two-, or three-dimensional molecular nanotubes. These compounds display a rich electrochemical behavior that is affected by the nature of the linkers.  (+info)

Nickel deficiency and nickel-rhodium interaction in chicks. (11/243)

Nickel deficiency was produced in chicks under near optimal growth conditions. This judgment is based on the finding that chicks fed the experimental diet supplemented with nickel had a very satisfactory growth rate, over 600 g in 4 weeks. To induce nickel deficiency, chicks were raised in plastic cages located inside plastic isolators and were fed diets (containing 2-15 ng of nickel/g) based on dried skim milk, acid-washed ground corn, EDTA-extracted soy protein, and corn oil. In 2 experiments, controls were fed 3 mug of nickel/g as NiCl2-6H2O. In experiment 3, instead of 1 control group 25, 50, 250, and 2,500 ng/g of supplemental dietary nickel as NiCl2-6H2O were each given to separate groups of chicks. Nickel deprivation resulted in: ultrastructural changes in the liver with the most obvious abnormality in the organization of the rough endoplasmic reticulum; altered gross appearance, reduced oxidative ability, and decreased lipid phosphorus in the liver; altered shank skin pigmentation that was associated with a decrease in yellow lipochrome pigments; and lower hematocrits. Deficiency also tended to increase the thickness of the legs and size of the hock; decrease the length:width ratios of the tibias and femurs; and decrease the plasma cholesterol. None of the signs of deficiency were seen in chicks fed diets containing at least 52 ng of nickel/g. In one experiment, a group of birds was fed 50 mug of rhodium/g of diet as (ClRh(NH3)5)SO4 to ascertain whether rhodium is a metabolic antagonist of nickel. Supplemental rhodium increased the hematocrits and liver oxidative ability of both nickel-deficient and -supplemented chicks, and increased total liver lipids, liver lipid phosphorus, and liver cholesterol in the nickel-deficient chicks alone. Rhodium did not increase the signs of nickel deficiency.  (+info)

Oxidative charge transport through DNA in nucleosome core particles. (12/243)

Eukaryotic DNA is packaged into nucleosomes, made up of 146 bp of DNA wrapped around a core of histone proteins. We used photoexcited rhodium intercalators to explore DNA charge transport within these assemblies. Although histone proteins inhibit intercalation of the rhodium complex within the core particle, they do not prevent 5'-GG-3' oxidation, the signature of oxidative charge transport through DNA. Moreover, using rhodium intercalators tethered to the 5' terminus of the DNA, we found that guanine bases within the nucleosome can be oxidized from a distance of 24 bp. Histone binding did not affect the pattern and extent of this oxidation. Therefore, although the structure of the nucleosome core particle generally protects DNA from damage by solution-borne molecules, packaging within the nucleosome does not protect DNA from charge transfer damage through the base pair stack.  (+info)

Cytogenetic and oxidative damage induced in human lymphocytes by platinum, rhodium and palladium compounds. (13/243)

This study of soluble compounds of platinum, palladium and rhodium investigated the genotoxic properties of (NH(4))(2)PtCl(4), PtCl(2), PtCl(4), (NH(4))(2)PdCl(4), PdCl(2) and RhCl(3) using the human lymphocyte micronucleus (MN) assay coupled with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). A pancentromeric DNA probe was used to detect both centromere-positive micronuclei (C+ MN) as well as centromere-negative micronuclei (C- MN). A modified alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay was used to evaluate the possible role of oxidative damage in genotoxicity of the Pt, Pd and Rh compounds tested. Two enzymes, endonuclease III and formamidopyrimidine glycosylase, were used to recognize and subsequently cut oxidized pyrimidines and purines, respectively. A significant induction of MN by Pt and Rh compounds was observed compared with controls, while (NH(4))(2)PdCl(4) and PdCl(2) displayed weak significant MN induction. The FISH technique revealed no significant difference in the frequency of C+ MN and C- MN for all compounds tested. These findings suggest that MN induction is due both to a clastogenic and an aneuploidogenic mechanism. SCGE detected an increase in the level of DNA oxidative damage for the Rh compound and for Pt(IV) which was also capable of inducing an increase in primary DNA damage at all the tested doses. This work highlights the stronger genotoxicity, likely mediated by oxidative damage induction, of Pt and Rh compounds compared with Pd salts.  (+info)

A rhodium(III) complex for high-affinity DNA base-pair mismatch recognition. (14/243)

A rhodium(III) complex, rac-[Rh(bpy)(2)phzi](3+) (bpy, 2,2'-bipyridine; phzi, benzo[a]phenazine-5,6-quinone diimine) has been designed as a sterically demanding intercalator targeted to destabilized mismatched sites in double-helical DNA. The complex is readily synthesized by condensation of the phenazine quinone with the corresponding diammine complex. Upon photoactivation, the complex promotes direct strand scission at single-base mismatch sites within the DNA duplex. As with the parent mismatch-specific reagent, [Rh(bpy)(2)(chrysi)](3+) [chrysene-5,6-quinone diimine (chrysi)], mismatch selectivity depends on the helix destabilization associated with mispairing. Unlike the parent chrysi complex, the phzi analogue binds and cleaves with high affinity and efficiency. The specific binding constants for CA, CC, and CT mismatches within a 31-mer oligonucleotide duplex are 0.3, 1, and 6 x 10(7) M(-1), respectively; site-specific photocleavage is evident at nanomolar concentrations. Moreover, the specificity, defined as the ratio in binding affinities for mispaired vs. well paired sites, is maintained. The increase in affinity is attributed to greater stability in the mismatched site associated with stacking by the heterocyclic aromatic ligand. The high-affinity complex is also applied in the differential cleavage of DNA obtained from cell lines deficient in mismatch repair vs. those proficient in mismatch repair. Agreement is found between photocleavage by the mismatch-specific probes and deficiency in mismatch repair. This mismatch-specific targeting, therefore, offers a potential strategy for new chemotherapeutic design.  (+info)

Asymmetric synthesis of beta-hydroxy acid via stereoselective dirhodium(II)-catalyzed C-H insertion of alpha-alkoxydiazoketone. (15/243)

A new methodology for the asymmetric synthesis of beta-hydroxy acid was developed. Dirhodium(II)-catalyzed C-H insertion of alpha-alkoxydiazoketone (3), which was prepared from primary alkyl halide (1) and readily available chiral alpha-hydroxy acid (2), gave stereoselectively 2,5-cis-disubstituted 3(2H)-furanone (4). The Baeyer-Villiger reaction of 4 followed by treatment with an acid afforded chiral beta-hydroxy acid (6) with high optical purity.  (+info)

Regio- and enantiospecific rhodium-catalyzed arylation of unsymmetrical fluorinated acyclic allylic carbonates: inversion of absolute configuration. (16/243)

The transition metal-catalyzed allylic substitution with unstabilized carbon nucleophiles represents an important cross-coupling reaction for the construction of ternary carbon stereogenic centers. We have developed a new regio- and enantiospecific rhodium-catalyzed allylic alkylation of acyclic unsymmetrical chiral nonracemic allylic alcohol derivatives with aryl zinc bromides. This study demonstrates that the hydrotris(pyrazolyl)borate rhodium catalyst and zinc(II) halide salt are crucial for efficiency, while the addition of lithium bromide to the catalyst is necessary for obtaining optimal regiospecificity. The stereochemical course of this reaction was established through the synthesis of (S)-ibuprofen, which demonstrated that the alkylation proceeds with net inversion of absolute configuration consistent with direct addition of the nucleophile to the metal center followed by reductive elimination.  (+info)