DNA mismatch-specific targeting and hypersensitivity of mismatch-repair-deficient cells to bulky rhodium(III) intercalators.
(41/243)Mismatch repair (MMR) is critical to maintaining the integrity of the genome, and deficiencies in MMR are correlated with cancerous transformations. Bulky rhodium intercalators target DNA base mismatches with high specificity. Here we describe the application of bulky rhodium intercalators to inhibit cellular proliferation differentially in MMR-deficient cells compared with cells that are MMR-proficient. Preferential inhibition by the rhodium complexes associated with MMR deficiency is seen both in a human colon cancer cell line and in normal mouse fibroblast cells; the inhibition of cellular proliferation depends strictly on the MMR deficiency of the cell. Furthermore, our assay of cellular proliferation is found to correlate with DNA mismatch targeting by the bulky metallointercalators. It is the Delta-isomer that is active both in targeting base mismatches and in inhibiting DNA synthesis. Additionally, the rhodium intercalators promote strand cleavage at the mismatch site with photoactivation, and we observe that the cellular response is enhanced with photoactivation. Targeting DNA mismatches may therefore provide a cell-selective strategy for chemotherapeutic design. (+info)
Cycloaddition protocol for the assembly of the hexacyclic framework associated with the kopsifoline alkaloids.
(42/243)An approach to the hexacyclic framework of the kopsifoline alkaloids has been developed and is based on a Rh(II)-catalyzed cyclization-cycloaddition cascade. The resulting [3+2]-cycloadduct was readily converted into the TBS enol ether 23. Oxidation of the primary alcohol present in 23 followed by reaction with CsF afforded compound 24 that contains the complete hexacyclic skeleton of the kopsifolines. [reaction: see text] (+info)
Dirhodium(II) tetrakis(perfluorobutyrate)-catalyzed 1,4-hydrosilylation of alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds.
(43/243)The use of dirhodium(II) catalysts in the 1,4-hydrosilylation of alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones and aldehydes was explored. Dirhodium(II) tetrakis(perfluorobutyrate), Rh2(pfb)4, proved to be the catalyst of choice for this process, providing the corresponding silyl enol ethers in high yields. (+info)
Tandem cyclization of alkynes via rhodium alkynyl and alkenylidene catalysis.
(44/243)A rhodium(I)-catalyzed tandem cyclization of alkynes has been developed. The reaction allows for multiple bond formations to occur at both the alpha- and beta-positions of alkynes under mild conditions to yield a variety of fused ring systems as the products. In the presence of triethylamine and the complex derived from [Rh(COD)Cl]2 and P(4-F-C6H4)3, a terminal alkyne is converted to a rhodium alkynyl species which reacts with a tethered alkyl halide at the beta-position to provide a beta,beta-disubstituted alkenylidene complex. The rhodium alkenylidene species then undergoes additional ring closures with a range of pendent functional groups such as alkene, hydroxyl, and phenyl groups through [2 + 2] cycloaddition, nucleophilic addition, and 6pi-electrocyclization processes, respectively. (+info)
Perspective on dirhodium carboxamidates as catalysts.
(45/243)Dirhodium compounds are emerging as highly efficient catalysts for diverse reactions, and those with carboxamidate ligands have the broadest applications. The unique features of these compounds are their structural rigidity, ease of ligand exchange, open diaxial sites for coordination with Lewis bases, and their low oxidation potential. As consequences of this, dirhodium carboxamidates are efficient and effective catalysts for metal carbene reactions, Lewis acid-catalyzed processes, and chemical oxidations. With chiral carboxamidate ligands these dirhodium compounds show exceptional enantiocontrol for intramolecular cyclopropanation and carbon-hydrogen insertion reactions of diazoacetates, and they are also highly efficient and selective for hetero-Diels-Alder reactions. Their limitations lie in their moderate reactivities for metal carbene generation and Lewis acid catalysis and in the cost of the precious metal rhodium. (+info)
Determination of manganese in urine and whole blood samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry: comparison of chemical modifiers.
(46/243)In this work, methodologies to determine manganese (Mn) in urine and whole blood by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry were developed. The use of Ru, Rh, and Zr as permanent modifiers, Pd as a modifier in solution, and the condition without modifier were investigated for the direct determination of Mn in urine and whole blood samples. The best results for Mn in urine and in whole blood were obtained without modifier use. The analytical characteristic, such as accuracy, precision and limit of detection of the proposed methodology were adequate. (+info)
Supramolecular allosteric cofacial porphyrin complexes.
(47/243)Nature routinely uses cooperative interactions to regulate cellular activity. For years, chemists have designed synthetic systems that aim toward harnessing the reactivity common to natural biological systems. By learning how to control these interactions in situ, one begins to allow for the preparation of man-made biomimetic systems that can efficiently mimic the interactions found in Nature. To this end, we have designed a synthetic protocol for the preparation of flexible metal-directed supramolecular cofacial porphyrin complexes which are readily obtained in greater than 90% yield through the use of new hemilabile porphyrin ligands with bifunctional ether-phosphine or thioether-phosphine substituents at the 5 and 15 positions on the porphyrin ring. The resulting architectures contain two hemilabile ligand-metal domains (RhI or CuI sites) and two cofacially aligned porphyrins (ZnII sites), offering orthogonal functionalities and allowing these multimetallic complexes to exist in two states, "condensed" or "open". Combining the ether-phosphine ligand with the appropriate RhI or CuI transition-metal precursors results in "open" macrocyclic products. In contrast, reacting the thioether-phosphine ligand with RhI or CuI precursors yields condensed structures that can be converted into their "open" macrocyclic forms via introduction of additional ancillary ligands. The change in cavity size that occurs allows these structures to function as allosteric catalysts for the acyl transfer reaction between X-pyridylcarbinol (where X = 2, 3, or 4) and 1-acetylimidazole. For 3- and 4-pyridylcarbinol, the "open" macrocycle accelerates the acyl transfer reaction more than the condensed analogue and significantly more than the porphyrin monomer. In contrast, an allosteric effect was not observed for 2-pyridylcarbinol, which is expected to be a weaker binder and is unfavorably constrained inside the macrocyclic cavity. (+info)
Insights into finding a mismatch through the structure of a mispaired DNA bound by a rhodium intercalator.
(48/243)We report the 1.1-A resolution crystal structure of a bulky rhodium complex bound to two different DNA sites, mismatched and matched in the oligonucleotide 5'-(dCGGAAATTCCCG)2-3'. At the AC mismatch site, the structure reveals ligand insertion from the minor groove with ejection of both mismatched bases and elucidates how destabilized mispairs in DNA may be recognized. This unique binding mode contrasts with major groove intercalation, observed at a matched site, where doubling of the base pair rise accommodates stacking of the intercalator. Mass spectral analysis reveals different photocleavage products associated with the two binding modes in the crystal, with only products characteristic of mismatch binding in solution. This structure, illustrating two clearly distinct binding modes for a molecule with DNA, provides a rationale for the interrogation and detection of mismatches. (+info)