Synthesis of (+/-)-brazilin using IBX. (33/243)

[reaction: see text] A short synthesis of (+/-)-brazilin is reported. This synthesis uses several interesting and underutilized transformations including a regioselective dirhodium-catalyzed aryl C-H insertion, a regioselective IBX phenol --> o-quinone oxidation, a tautomerization of an o-quinone to a p-quinone methide, and an intramolecular aryl cyclization with a p-quinone methide.  (+info)

Radiosensitization of CHO cells by two novel rhodium complexes under oxic and hypoxic conditions. (34/243)

BACKGROUND: Tumour hypoxia severely limits the success of radiotherapy. Radiosensitization of hypoxic tumour cells by drugs is thus an important clinical issue. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two novel ferrocene-containing beta-diketonato complexes of the transition metals rhodium and iridium were examined for their cytotoxic activity against Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by MTT and clonogenic assays. The same complexes were also tested for their capacity to sensitize hypoxic CHO cells against 8 MeV photons. RESULTS: The IC50 for [Rh(fcta)(cod)] (I) and [Rh (fctca)(cod)] (II), where (fctfa) = ferrocenoylacetonato-4,4,4-trifluoro and (fctca) = ferrocenoyl-4,4,4-trichloro- and (cod) = 1,5-cyclooctadiene, were found to be 1.38 microM and 4.18 microM, respectively, closely resembling that of cisplatin which was found to be 1.21 microM. The rhodium (I) complex was identified as an effective anoxic radiosensitizer showing a dose-modifying factor (DMF) of 1.93 +/- 0.02, resembling cisplatin where the DMF was found to be 1.99 +/- 0.02. Small DMF's in the range of 1.10 were also found for cisplatin and the rhodium (I) complex under aerobic conditions, but these were not statistically significant. The DMF for the iridium complex was small and found to be 1.06 +/- 0.04. CONCLUSION: The cytotoxicity and radiosensitizing properties of the rhodium (I) complex are very similar to cisplatin and show considerable potential for clinical application.  (+info)

Experimental and computational studies on the mechanism of N-heterocycle C-H activation by Rh(I). (35/243)

Evidence is presented for a proposed mechanism of C-H activation of 3-methyl-3,4-dihydroquinazoline (1) by (PCy(3))(2)RhCl. One intermediate (3), a coordination complex of 1 with (PCy(3))(2)RhCl, was identified along the path to the Rh-N-heterocyclic carbene product of this reaction (2). Isotopic labeling and reaction-rate studies were used to demonstrate that C-H activation takes place intramolecularly on the reaction coordinate between 3 and 2. Computational studies corroborate the proposed mechanism and suggest that the rate-limiting step is oxidative addition of the C-H bond to the metal center. The consequences of this mechanism for coupling reactions of N-heterocycles that occur via Rh-catalyzed C-H bond activation are discussed.  (+info)

Rhodium(I)-catalyzed nucleophilic ring-opening reactions of oxabicyclo adducts derived from the [4 + 2]-cycloaddition of 2-imido-substituted furans. (36/243)

A series of 2-imido-substituted furans containing tethered unsaturation were prepared by the addition of the lithium carbamate of furan-2-ylcarbamic acid tert-butyl ester to a solution of the mixed anhydride of an appropriately substituted 3-butenoic acid. The initially formed imido furans undergo a rapid intramolecular [4 + 2]-cycloaddition at room temperature to deliver the Diels-Alder cycloadducts in good to excellent yield. Isolation of the highly labile oxabicyclic adduct is believed to be a consequence of the lower reaction temperatures employed as well as the presence of the extra carbonyl group, which diminishes the basicity of the nitrogen atom, thereby retarding the ring cleavage/rearrangement reaction generally encountered with related systems. By using a Rh(I)-catalyzed ring opening of the oxabicyclic adduct with various nucleophilic reagents, it was possible to prepare highly functionalized hexahydro-1H-indol-2(3H)-one derivatives in good yield. The major stereoisomer obtained possesses a cis-relationship between the nucleophile and hydroxyl group in the ring-opened product. The stereochemistry was unequivocally established by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Coordination of Rh(I) to the alkenyl pi-bond followed by a nitrogen-assisted cleavage of the carbon-oxygen bond occurs to furnish a pi-allyl rhodium(III) species. Addition of the nucleophile then occurs from the least hindered terminus of the resulting pi-allyl rhodium(III) complex. Proton exchange followed by rhodium(I) decomplexation ultimately leads to the cis-diastereomer.  (+info)

The oxidative mannich reaction catalyzed by dirhodium caprolactamate. (37/243)

Dirhodium caprolactamate [Rh2(cap)4] is a highly effective catalyst for the oxidative Mannich reaction. The reaction proceeds via C-H oxidation of a tertiary amine followed by nucleophilic capture. This green transformation is conducted in protic solvent using inexpensive T-HYDRO (70% t-BuOOH in water). Synthetically valuable gamma-aminoalkyl butenolides are obtained.  (+info)

Application of the Rh(II) cyclization/cycloaddition cascade for the total synthesis of (+/-)-aspidophytine. (38/243)

[Structure: see text] A new strategy for the synthesis of (+/-)-aspidophytine has been developed and is based on a Rh(II)-catalyzed cyclization/dipolar cycloaddition sequence. The resulting [3+2]-cycloadduct undergoes an efficient Lewis acid mediated cascade that rapidly provides the complete skeleton of aspidophytine. The synthesis also features a mild decarbomethoxylation reaction.  (+info)

Synthesis of the tetracyclic framework of the erythrina alkaloids using a [4 + 2]-cycloaddition/Rh(I)-catalyzed cascade of 2-imidofurans. (39/243)

Several 2-imido substituted furans were found to undergo a rapid intramolecular [4 + 2]-cycloaddition to deliver oxabicyclo adducts in good to excellent yields. By using a Rh(I)-catalyzed ring opening of the resulting oxabicyclic adduct, it was possible to prepare several highly functionalized tetrahydro-1H-indol-2(3H)-one derivatives which were then used to prepare several erythrina alkaloids. By taking advantage of the Rh(I)-catalyzed reaction, it was possible to convert tert-butyl 3-oxo-5-carbomethoxy-10-oxa-2-azatricyclo[5.2.1.0(1,5)]dec-8-ene-2-carboxylate into the ring opened boronate by reaction with phenylboronic acid. Treatment of the boronate with pinacol/acetic acid afforded the corresponding diol which was used in a successful synthesis of racemic 3-demethoxyerythratidinone. During the course of these studies, several novel rearrangement reactions were encountered while attempting to induce an acid-initiated Pictet Spengler cyclization of a key lactam intermediate. The IMDAF/Rh(I)-catalyzed ring opening cascade sequence was also applied to the total synthesis of (+/-)-erysotramidine as well as the lycorine type alkaloid (+/-)-epi-zephyranthine.  (+info)

Pseudotetrahedral manganese complexes supported by the anionic tris(phosphino)borate ligand [PhBP(iPr)3]. (40/243)

This paper presents aspects of the coordination chemistry of mono- and divalent manganese complexes supported by the anionic tris(phosphino)borate ligand, [PhBP(i)(Pr)3] (where [PhBP(i)(Pr)3] = [PhB(CH(2)P(i)Pr2)3]-). The Mn(II) halide complexes, [PhBP(i)(Pr)3]MnCl (1) and [PhBP(i)(Pr)3]MnI (2), have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, SQUID magnetometry, and EPR spectroscopy. Compound 2 serves as a precursor to a series of Mn azide, alkyl, and amide species: [PhBP(i)(Pr)3]Mn(N3) (3), [PhBP(i)(Pr)3]Mn(CH2Ph) (4), [PhBP(i)(Pr)3]Mn(Me) (5), [PhBP(i)(Pr)3]Mn(NH(2,6-(i)Pr2-C6H3)) (6), [PhBP(i)(Pr)3]Mn(dbabh) (7), and [PhBP(i)(Pr)3]Mn(1-Ph(isoindolate)) (8). The complexes 2-8 feature a divalent-metal center and are pseudotetrahedral. They collectively represent an uncommon structural motif for low-coordinate, polyphosphine-supported Mn complexes. Two Mn(I) species have also been prepared. These include the Tl-Mn adduct [PhBP(i)(Pr)3]Tl-MnBr(CO)4 (9) and the octahedral complex [PhBP(i)(Pr)3]Mn(CN(t)Bu)3 (10). Some of our initial synthetic efforts to generate [PhBP(i)(Pr)3]MnN(x) species are briefly described, as are DFT studies that probe the electronic viability of these types of multiply bonded target structures.  (+info)