Preparation of enantiopure norbornane ligands bearing both (2S,3S)-bis(phosphinomethyl) and 7-syn-oxygen functional groups and an application to rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation.
(25/243)Enantiopure bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane derivatives having both (2S,3S)-bis[(diphenylphosphino)methyl] and 7-syn-oxygen functional groups were synthesized by using diastereoselective Diels-Alder reaction of di-(1R)-menthyl fumarate and 5-trimethylsilylcyclopentadiene followed by silver-promoted stereospecific frame rearrangement of a bromolactone intermediate. Rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenations were carried out using the diphosphines as a chiral ligand. (+info)
Biomonitoring of titanium, mercury, platinum, rhodium and palladium in dental health care workers.
(26/243)BACKGROUND: In dentistry, titanium, mercury, platinum, rhodium and palladium are used to produce dental fillings. Therefore, dental workers who apply such materials may be exposed to these metals. METHODS: The study concerned 40 healthy subjects-20 controls and 20 dental health care workers-to determine serum and urinary levels of the aforementioned metals by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Mean urinary and serum titanium did not reveal statistically significant differences in the two groups. The very low urinary and serum levels of mercury, platinum, rhodium and palladium prevented us from making a statistical evaluation between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find a significant increase in serum and urinary titanium levels in dental health care workers. Measurement of mercury, platinum, rhodium and palladium in urine and serum was not useful in determining occupational exposure. (+info)
Preparation of axially chiral biphenyl diphosphine ligands and their application in asymmetric hydrogenation.
(27/243)Axially chiral biphenyldiphosphine ligands bearing diphenylphosphino group(s) and/or dicyclohexylphosphino group(s) were prepared in enantiomerically pure form starting from 2,6-dimethylnitrobenzene via 8 steps: iodination, reduction, methoxylation through diazotization, Ullmann coupling, bromination, phosphorylation, optical resolution, and silane reduction, and the obtained ligands were used in rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation. (+info)
Enantioselective rhodium enolate protonations. A new methodology for the synthesis of beta2-amino acids.
(28/243)[reaction: see text] Rhodium-catalyzed conjugate addition of an aryl boronic acid to alpha-methylamino acrylates followed by enantioselective protonation of the oxa-pi-allylrhodium intermediate provides access to aryl-substituted beta(2)-amino acids. The impact of the different variables of the reaction on the levels of enantioselectivity has been assessed. (+info)
Intermolecular rhodium-catalyzed [2+2+2] carbocyclization reactions of 1,6-enynes with symmetrical and unsymmetrical alkynes.
(29/243)The crossed intermolecular rhodium-catalyzed [2+2+2] carbocyclization of carbon and heteroatom tethered 1,6-enynes can be accomplished with symmetrical and unsymmetrical alkynes, to afford the corresponding bicyclohexadienes in an efficient and highly selective manner. (+info)
Hydrogen-mediated reductive coupling of conjugated alkynes with ethyl (N-Sulfinyl)iminoacetates: synthesis of unnatural alpha-amino acids via rhodium-catalyzed C-C bond forming hydrogenation.
(30/243)Rhodium-catalyzed hydrogenation of 1,3-enynes 1a-8a and 1,3-diynes 9a-13a at ambient temperature and pressure in the presence of ethyl (N-tert-butanesulfinyl)iminoacetate and ethyl (N-2,4,6-triisopropylbenzenesulfinyl)iminoacetates, respectively, results in reductive coupling to afford unsaturated alpha-amino acid esters 1b-13b in good to excellent yields with exceptional levels of regio- and stereocontrol. Further hydrogenation of the diene containing alpha-amino acid esters 1b-8b using Wilkinson's catalyst at ambient temperature and pressure results in regioselective reduction to afford the beta,gamma-unsaturated alpha-amino acid esters 1c-8c in good to excellent yields. Exhaustive hydrogenation of the unsaturated side chains of the Boc- and Fmoc-protected derivatives of enyne and diyne coupling products 14b-16b occurs in excellent yield using Crabtree's catalyst at ambient temperature and pressure providing the alpha-amino acid esters 14d-16d, which possess saturated side chains. Finally, cross-metathesis of the Boc-protected reductive coupling product 14b with cis-1,4-diacetoxy-2-butene proceeds readily to afford the allylic acetate 14e. Isotopic labeling studies that involve reductive coupling of enyne 1a and diyne 9a under an atmosphere of elemental deuterium corroborate a catalytic mechanism in which oxidative coupling of the alkyne and imine residues is followed by hydrogenolytic cleavage of the resulting metallacycle. A stereochemical model accounting for the observed sense of asymmetric induction is provided. These studies represent the first use of imines as electrophilic partners in hydrogen-mediated reductive carbon-carbon bond formation. (+info)
Regio- and enantioselective intermolecular rhodium-catalyzed [2+2+2] carbocyclization reactions of 1,6-enynes with methyl arylpropiolates.
(31/243)Transition metal-catalyzed [m+n+o] carbocyclization reactions provide powerful methods for the construction of complex polycyclic systems that are generally not accessible through classical pericyclic reactions. We have developed the first regio- and enantioselective crossed intermolecular rhodium-catalyzed [2+2+2] carbocyclization of carbon- and heteroatom-tethered 1,6-enynes with unsymmetrical 1,2-disubstituted alkynes. This study clearly delineates the ligand requirements for obtaining excellent regio- and enantioselectivity. Furthermore, the ability to utilize various electron-withdrawing groups, and to introduce quaternary carbon stereogenic centers, provides the level of versatility necessary for its application to target-directed synthesis. Additional studies on the development and application of this novel methodology to the total synthesis of natural products are currently underway. (+info)
Practical synthesis of Dirhodium(II) tetrakis[N-phthaloyl-(S)-tert-leucinate].
(32/243)An efficient and reliable procedure for the preparation of dirhodium(II) tetrakis[N-phthaloyl-(S)-tert-leucinate], Rh2(S-PTTL)(4), a universally effective catalyst for a range of enantioselective carbene transformations, is described. The N-phthaloylation of (S)-tert-leucine by the method of Bose with essentially no racemization is a key to this process. (+info)