Association of free radicals and the tissue renin-angiotensin system: prospective effects of Rhodiola, a genus of Chinese herb, on hypoxia-induced pancreatic injury.
The renin-angiotensin system has long been recognized as crucial factor in the regulation of the systemic blood pressure and renal electrolyte homeostasis. Numerous studies have demonstrated the presence of a local renin-angiotensin system in a variety of organs. A recent study of the pancreatic renin-angiotensin system showed that chronic hypoxia significantly increased the mRNA expression for angiotensinogen II receptor subtypes AT1b and AT2. The activation of the renin-angiotensin system may play an important role in cellular pathophysiological processes. Angiotensin II enhances the formation of reactive oxygen species via the activation of xanthine oxidase or NAD(P)H oxidase. The reactive oxygen species can cause oxidative damage in the pancreas and other tissues either directly or indirectly via the formation of other radicals such as reactive nitrogen species. Rhodiola therapy may protect hypoxia-induced pancreatic injury in two ways. It prevents hypoxia-induced biological changes by increasing intracellular oxygen diffusion and efficiency of oxygen utilization. Alternatively, it reduces hypoxia-induced oxidative damage by its antioxidant activities. Additional experimental data are required to fully elucidate the mode of action of this herbal drug. (+info)
Neuroprotective effects of constituents of the oriental crude drugs, Rhodiola sacra, R. sachalinensis and Tokaku-joki-to, against beta-amyloid toxicity, oxidative stress and apoptosis.
We tested the constituents of two Rhodiola plants, Rhodiola sacra S. H. Fu and R. sachalinensis A. BOR, and an Oriental crude drug, Tokaku-joki-to, for their neuroprotective effects. Of the 58 compounds tested, six had considerable protective effects against beta-amyloid-induced death of B103 neuronal cells in vitro. These six compounds also showed protective effects against staurosporine-induced cell death, and two of the six compounds protected neurons from H2O2-induced cell death. These results suggest that some of the tested compounds protect neurons from beta-amyloid toxicity based on antiapoptotic and antioxidative activity. (+info)
Phenylpropanoid glycosides from Rhodiola rosea.
Rhodiola rosea L. (Golden Root) has been used for a long time as an adaptogen in Chinese traditional medicine and is reported to have many pharmacological properties. Along its known secondary metabolites tyrosol (1), salidroside (rhodioloside) (2), rosin (3), rosarin (4), rosavin (5), sachaliside 1 (6) and 4-methoxy-cinnamyl-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7), four compounds were isolated from aqueous methanol extract of the plant and identified as cinnamyl-(6'-O-beta-xylopyranosyl)-O-beta-glucopyranoside (8), 4-methoxy-cinnamyl-(6'-O-alpha-arabinopyranosyl)-O-beta-glucopyranoside (9), picein (10) and benzyl-O-beta-glucopyranoside (11) by UV, MS and NMR methods. Compounds 8 and 9 are new natural compounds whereas compounds 10 and 11 were isolated first time from R. rosea. Also the compounds 6 and 7 are isolated earlier only from the callus cultures of the plant but not from the differentiated plant. (+info)
Effect of compound rhodiola sachalinensis A Bor on CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats and its probable molecular mechanisms.
AIM: To explore the anti-fibrotic effect of a traditional Chinese medicine, compound rhodiola sachalinensis A Bor on CCl(4)-induced liver fibrosis in rats and its probable molecular mechanisms. METHODS: Ninety healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal group (n=10), treatment group of compound rhodiola sachalinensis A Bor (n=40) and CCl(4)-induced model group (n=40). The liver fibrosis was induced by CCl(4) subcutaneous injection. Treatment group was administered with compound rhodiola sachalinensis A Bor (0.5 g/kg) once a day at the same time. Then the activities of several serum fibrosis-associated enzymes: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (beta-NAG) and the levels of serum procollagen III (PCIII), collagen IV (CIV), hyaluronic acid (HA) were assayed. The histopathological changes were observed with HE, VG and Masson stain. The expression of TGF-beta1 mRNA, alpha1 (I) mRNA and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) mRNA was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in situ. RESULTS: Compound rhodiola sachalinensis A Bor significantly reduced serum activities of ALT, AST, beta-NAG and decreased the levels of PCIII, CIV, HA, improved the liver histopathological changes, inhibited the expression of TGF-beta1 mRNA, alpha (I) mRNA and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger mRNA in rats. CONCLUSION: Compound rhodiola sachalinensis A Bor can intervene in CCl(4)-induced liver fibrosis in rats, in which potential mechanisms may be decreasing the production of TGF-beta1, reducing the production of collagen, preventing the activation of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) and inhibiting the expression of TGF-beta1 mRNA, alpha1(I) mRNA and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger mRNA. (+info)
Reduction of noise-stress-induced physiological damage by radices of Astragali and Rhodiolae: glycogen, lactic acid and cholesterol contents in liver of the rat.
Noise is one of the factors that induces critical stress in animals. The contents of glycogen, lactic acid and cholesterol in the liver of noise-stressed rats were analyzed in order to investigate the alleviation of noise-stress-induced physiological damages by traditional medicine using Astragali and Rhodiolae radices. More than 95 dB noise ranging from 2 to 4 kHz reduced the contents of these compounds in the liver of rats not injected with the extract of Astragali or Rhodiolae, but did not change the contents in the liver of rats injected with the Astragali or Rhodiolae extract. These results show that noise induced stress in the rats via a decrease in contents of these compounds in the liver and that Astragali or Rhodiolae maintained the contents of these compounds in the liver of the noise-stressed rats. The results indicate that Astragali or Rhodiolae improved the ability for rats to resist noise stress. (+info)
Resistance imparted by traditional Chinese medicines to the acute change of glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase activities in rat blood caused by noise.
The activities of serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and creatine kinase (CK) in rats injected or not with the Chinese medicines, Astragali, Rhodiolae and Ligusticum, were determined after noise exposure. Noise at 95 and 105 dB significantly increased the activities of GPT, ALP and CK, and showed a dependence on the exposure time. The injection of each medicine significantly suppressed the increased enzyme activities by 95 and 105 dB noise. (+info)
Identification of Rhodiola species by using RP-HPLC.
An approach was established using RP-HPLC (reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography) to identify ten species of Rhodiola, R. coccinea A. Bor, R. junggarica C.Y. Yang et N.R. Cui spn., R. heterodonta A. Bor, R. linearifolia A. Bor, R. pamiro alaiucm A. Bor, R. kaschgarica A. Bor, R. litwinowii A. Bor, R. gelida schrenk, R. rosea L. and R. quadrifide Fisch et Mey collected from the Tianshan Mountains areas of China. Chromatograms of alcohol-soluble proteins, generated from these ten Rhodiola spp. were compared. Each chromatogram of alcohol-soluble proteins came from a single seed of one wild species only. The results showed that when using a Waters Delta Pak. C18, 5 microm particle size reversed phase column (150 mm x 3.9 mm), a linear gradient of 22%-55% solvent B with a flow rate of 1 ml/min and a run time of 67 min, the chromatography gave optimum separation of Rhodiola alcohol-soluble proteins. Chromatogram of each species was different and could be used to identify those species. Cluster analysis of genetic similarity coefficients of 37% to 60% showed a medium degree of genetic diversity among the species in these eco-areas. Cluster analysis showed that the ten species of Rhodiola can be divided into four clusters and yielded the general and unique biochemical markers of these species. RP-HPLC was shown to be a rapid, repeatable and reliable method for Rhodiola species identification and analysis of genetic diversity. (+info)
Evaluation of Rhodiola crenulata and Rhodiola rosea for management of type II diabetes and hypertension.
In the current study, we investigated 2 species of the genus Rhodiola for the inhibition of alpha-amylase,alpha-glucosidase and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. Water extracts of Rhodiola crenulata had the highest alpha-amylase inhibitory activity (IC50,98.1 microg total phenolic /ml) followed by ethanol extract of R.crenulata (IC50, 120.9 microg total phenolic/ml) and ethanol extract of R.rosea (IC50, 173.4 microg total phenolic /ml). Ethanol R.rosea (IC50, 44.7 microg total phenolic/ml), water extract of R.rosea (IC50, 52.3 microg total phenolic/ml), water extract of R.crenulata (IC50, 60.3 microg total phenolic /ml) and ethanol extract of R.crenulata (IC50, 60.2 microg total phenolic/ml) also showed significant alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the extracts was compared to standard tyrosol, which was significantly detected in the extracts using HPLC. Tyrosol had strong alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50, 70.8 microg total phenolic/ml) but did not have any inhibitory effect on the alpha-amylase activity. Results suggested that alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities of both Rhodiola extracts correlated to the phenolic content, antioxidant activity and phenolic profile of the extracts. The ability of the above Rhodiola extracts to inhibit rabbit lung angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) was investigated. The ethanol extracts of R.rosea had the highest ACE inhibitory activity (38.5 %) followed by water extract of R.rosea (36.2 %) and R.crenulata (15.4 %). (+info)