(1/359) The structure of a glycopeptide (GP-II) isolated from Rhizopus saccharogenic amylase.
Mild alkaline treatment of glycopeptide (GP-II) resulted in the loss of 1 mole of serine and 5 moles of threonine per mole of GP-II, suggesting the presence of O-glycosyl bonds between 1 serine and 5 threonine residues and carbohydrate chains. Treatment of GP-II with alkaline borohydride released only disaccharide. Methylation studies of the carbohydrate moiety gave 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-methyl and 2,4,6-tri-O-methyl derivatives of mannose in a ratio of approximately 1:1. In addition, one step of Smith degradation resulted in the loss of about 6 residues of mannose per mole of GP-II. Moreover, alpha-mannosidase [EC 18.104.22.168] liberated about 6 residles of mannose per mole of GP-II. On the basis of these data, the structure of the carbohydrate moiety of GP-II was confirmed to be 3-O-alpha-mannosylmannose. The amino- and carboxyl-terminal amino acids of GP-II were determined to be threonine and serine, respectively. On reductive cleavage of N-proline bonds with metallic sodium in liquid ammonia, 2 moles of alanine per mole of GP-II were lost. From the compositions of three fragments isolated from the reductive cleavage products, the amino acid sequence of the peptide portion of GP-II was determined. Based on these data, a probable structure was proposed for GP-II. (+info)
(2/359) Decolorization and detoxification of extraction-stage effluent from chlorine bleaching of kraft pulp by Rhizopus oryzae.
Rhizopus oryzae, a zygomycete, was found to decolorize, dechlorinate, and detoxify bleach plant effluent at lower cosubstrate concentrations than the basidiomycetes previously investigated. With glucose at 1 g/liter, this fungus removed 92 to 95% of the color, 50% of the chemical oxygen demand, 72% of the adsorbable organic halide, and 37% of the extractable organic halide in 24 h at temperatures of 25 to 45 degrees C and a pH of 3 to 5. Even without added cosubstrate the fungus removed up to 78% of the color. Monomeric chlorinated aromatic compounds were removed almost completely, and toxicity to zebra fish was eliminated. The fungal mycelium could be immobilized in polyurethane foam and used repeatedly to treat batches of effluent. The residue after treatment was not further improved by exposure to fresh R. oryzae mycelium. (+info)
(3/359) Phycomycotic gastritis in buffalo calves (Bubalis bubalis).
Mycotic gastritis, primarily caused by Rhizopus sp. was seen in six buffalo calves (7-13 days old) at postmortem examination. The predominant lesions were numerous raised ulcers in which were hyphae of Rhizopus. In three calves, Candida organisms were also present superficially in the ulcers. Other changes in the mucosa were severe congestion, haemorrhage, thrombosis, necrosis, and infiltration by lymphocytes and neutrophils. Both Rhizopus and Candida were highly pathogenic to rabbits when inoculated intravenously. The disease could not be reproduced experimentally by feeding of Rhizopus orally to rabbits and calves. (+info)
(4/359) Interactions of fluorescent triacylglycerol analogs covalently bound to the active site of a lipase from Rhizopus oryzae.
Fluorescent triacylglycerol analogs were synthesized as covalent inhibitors of lipase activity. The respective 1(3), 2-O-dialkylglycero-3(1)-alkyl-phosphonic acid p-nitrophenyl esters contain a fluorescent pyrenealkyl chain and a long-chain alkyl residue bound to the sn-2 and sn-1(3) positions of glycerol, respectively. The phosphonic acid p-nitrophenyl ester bond is susceptible to nucleophilic substitution by the active serine residue in the catalytic triad of a lipase, leading to inactivation of the enzyme. The fluorescent dialkylglycerophosphonates contain two chiral centers, the sn-2 carbon of glycerol and the phosphorus atom. The (1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-pyrenedecyl-sn-glycero)-O-(p-nitrophenyl)-n-hex yl- phosphonate, first peak during HPLC separation and the (3-O-hexadecyl-2-O-pyrenedecyl-sn-glycero)-O-(p-nitrophenyl)-n-hex yl- phosphonate, second peak during HPLC separation were found to be potent lipase inhibitors. After incubation of an equimolar amount of these isomers with lipase from Rhizopus oryzae complete inactivation was observed. Stable conjugates containing a 1 : 1 molar ratio of lipid to protein were formed. The spatial proximity of the fluorescently labeled sn-2 alkyl chain of the inhibitor and tryptophan residues of the lipase was assessed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The extent of tryptophan fluorescence quenching and the concomitant increase in pyrene fluorescence upon excitation of lipase tryptophans was found to be similar for the above-mentioned isomers. Thus, the (labeled) sn-2 alkyl chains of a triacylglycerol analog are likely to interact with the same binding site of the R. oryzae lipase, irrespective of their steric configuration. However, it was shown that the extent of resonance energy transfer is strongly influenced by the reaction medium, indicating conformational changes of the lipase in different environments. (+info)
(5/359) In vitro stimulation by retinol of porcine pancreatic esterase activity toward esters of short-chain fatty acids.
1. Retinol exerted a remarkable stimulating effect (approx. 260% increase), essentially similar to that (300%) of phytol, on the so-called esterase activity displayed by crude pancreatic lipase [EC 22.214.171.124] toward true solutions of esters, but none of the typical lipase activity toward emulsions of water-insoluble esters. 2. Comparison of the stimulatory effects of retinol derivatives on the esterase activity revealed that retinyl acetate was the most active, being sustantially similar in effect to retinol; retinal was fairly active, while retinoic acid, retinyl palmitate, and beta-ionone were far less active. 3. With various isoprenoid compounds, the efficiency of stimulation increased with the carbon chain length, attaining a maximum at 15 to 20 carbon atoms. Above this chain length the efficiency decreased rapidly. 4. Comparison of the effects of retinol and phytol on the esterase activity of various other lipolytic enzymes indicated that this kind of activator may be relatively specific to porcine pancreatic esterase activity. (+info)
(6/359) Molecular dynamics of microbial lipases as determined from their intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence.
We have studied the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of the lipases from Chromobacterium viscosum (CVL), Pseudomonas species (PSL), and Rhizopus oryzae (ROL) in aqueous buffer, zwitterionic detergent micelles, and isopropanol-water mixtures. It was the purpose of this study to obtain information about biophysical properties of the respective enzymes under conditions that modulate enzyme activities and stereoselectivities to a significant extent. According to their decay-associated emission spectra, CVL tryptophans are located in the hydrophobic interior of the protein. In contrast, the PSL and ROL tryptophans are probably confined to the core and the surface of the lipase. From the tryptophan lifetime distributions it can be concluded that the conformation of CVL is not much affected by detergent or organic solvent (isopropanol). Accordingly, CVL is enzymatically active in these systems and most active in the presence of isopropanol. In contrast, ROL and PSL show high conformational mobility, depending on the solvent, because their lifetime distributions are very different in the presence and absence of detergent or isopropanol. Time-resolved anisotropy studies provided evidence that the lipases exhibit very high internal molecular flexibility. This peculiar feature of lipases is perhaps the key to the great differences in activity and stereoselectivity observed in different reaction media. Furthermore, information about self-association of the lipases in different solvents could be obtained. PSL, but not CVL and ROL, forms aggregates in water. Lipase aggregation can be reversed by the addition of detergent or isopropanol, which competes for the hydrophobic surface domains of this protein. This dissociation could efficiently contribute to the increase in lipase activity in the presence of a detergent or isopropanol. (+info)
(7/359) Disseminated zygomycosis due to Rhizopus schipperae after heatstroke.
A 21-year-old woman suffered heatstroke and developed diarrhea while trekking across south Texas. The heatstroke was complicated by seizures, rhabdomyolysis, pneumonia, renal failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The patient's stool and blood cultures grew Campylobacter jejuni. The patient subsequently developed paranasal and gastrointestinal zygomycosis and required surgical debridement and a prolonged course of amphotericin B. The zygomycete cultured was Rhizopus schipperae. This is only the second isolate of R. schipperae that has been described. R. schipperae is characterized by the production of clusters of up to 10 sporangiophores arising from simple but well-developed rhizoids. These asexual reproductive propagules are produced on Czapek Dox agar but are absent on routine mycology media, where only chlamydospores are observed. Despite multiorgan failure, bacteremia, and disseminated zygomycosis, the patient survived and had a good neurological outcome. Heatstroke has not been previously described as a risk factor for the development of disseminated zygomycosis. (+info)
(8/359) Active site characterization of RNase Rs from Rhizopus stolonifer: involvement of histidine and lysine in catalysis and carboxylate in substrate binding.
Chemical modification studies on purified RNase Rs revealed the involvement of a single histidine, lysine and carboxylate residue in the catalytic activity of the enzyme. RNA could not protect the enzyme against DEP- and TNBS-mediated inactivation whereas, substrate protection was observed in case of EDAC-mediated inactivation of the enzyme. K(m) and k(cat) values of the partially inactivated enzyme samples suggested that while histidine and lysine are involved in catalysis, carboxylate is involved in substrate binding. Active site nature of RNase Rs suggests that the inability of the enzyme to readily convert 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides to 3'-mononucleotides is probably due to the absence of catalytically active second histidine residue. (+info)