Phylogenetic analysis of Rhinosporidium seeberi's 18S small-subunit ribosomal DNA groups this pathogen among members of the protoctistan Mesomycetozoa clade.
For the past 100 years the phylogenetic affinities of Rhinosporidium seeberi have been controversial. Based on its morphological features, it has been classified as a protozoan or as a member of the kingdom Fungi. We have amplified and sequenced nearly a full-length 18S small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence from R. seeberi. Using phylogenetic analysis, by parsimony and distance methods, of R. seeberi's 18S SSU rDNA and that of other eukaryotes, we found that this enigmatic pathogen of humans and animals clusters with a novel group of fish parasites referred to as the DRIP clade (Dermocystidium, rossete agent, Ichthyophonus, and Psorospermium), near the animal-fungal divergence. Our phylogenetic analyses also indicate that R. seeberi is the sister taxon of the two Dermocystidium species used in this study. This molecular affinity is remarkable since members of the genus Dermocystidium form spherical structures in infected hosts, produce endospores, have not been cultured, and possess mitochondria with flat cristae. With the addition of R. seeberi to this clade, the acronym DRIP is no longer appropriate. We propose to name this monophyletic clade Mesomycetozoa to reflect the group's phylogenetic association within the Eucarya. (+info)
Rhinosporidium seeberi: a human pathogen from a novel group of aquatic protistan parasites.
Rhinosporidium seeberi, a microorganism that can infect the mucosal surfaces of humans and animals, has been classified as a fungus on the basis of morphologic and histochemical characteristics. Using consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we amplified a portion of the R. seeberi 18S rRNA gene directly from infected tissue. Analysis of the aligned sequence and inference of phylogenetic relationships showed that R. seeberi is a protist from a novel clade of parasites that infect fish and amphibians. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and R. seeberi- specific PCR showed that this unique 18S rRNA sequence is also present in other tissues infected with R. seeberi. Our data support the R. seeberi phylogeny recently suggested by another group. R. seeberi is not a classic fungus, but rather the first known human pathogen from the DRIPs clade, a novel clade of aquatic protistan parasites (Ichthyosporea). (+info)
Rhinosporidiosis in a cat.
A polypoid nasal mass from an adult cat was submitted for routine biopsy examination and was found to contain sporangia and sporangiospores consistent with Rhinosporidium seeberi. Inflammatory infiltrates were moderate and pyogranulomatous to lymphohistiocytic and were associated with hyperplasia of the transitional nasal epithelium. Apparently, this is the first reported case of rhinosporidiosis in a cat. (+info)
Rhinosporidiosis--a clinicopathological study of 34 cases.
Rhinosporidiosis was the commonest (68%) fungal lesion encountered during the period of 11 1/2 years from January 1987 to July 1998. Men in 2nd, 3rd, 4th decade were commonly affected. Nose and nasopharynx were the commonest (85%) sites involved followed by ocular tissue (9%). One patient had involvement of bone (tibia). Generally a lymphoplasmacytic response was observed in all cases. Polymorphonuclear leukocytic response mostly observed at the site of rupture of sporangia. Epithelioid cell granulomatous and giant cell response observed in 47% of cases. Transepithelial migration of sporangia observed in 76% of cases. Rhinosporidium seeberi could be easily identified in haematoxylin and eosin stained sections. The walls of young trophic forms are delineated well with the PAS stain and verhoeff van Gieson stain. (+info)
Molecular evidence for multiple host-specific strains in the genus Rhinosporidium.
The taxonomic relationship of Rhinosporidium seeberi with other organisms remained controversial for over a century. Recently, molecular studies have shown R. seeberi to be a protistal microbe in the newly described class Mesomycetozoea at the animal-fungal boundary. Phylogenetic analyses of R. seeberi using 18S small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes from several hosts suggested Rhinosporidium as a monotypic genus. To test this hypothesis, the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), 5.8S, and ITS2 from eight humans, two swans, and a dog with rhinosporidiosis were sequenced. The ITS regions were amplified by PCR using a primer designed from a unique region of R. seeberi's 18S SSU rRNA genes in combination with the ITS4 universal primer. In addition, the universal ITS4 and ITS5 primers were also used. R. seeberi's ITS sequences showed differences in the numbers of nucleotides among strains. For instance, the eight human ITS sequences were uniformly similar with only a few mismatches and approximately 1,060 bp long. In contrast, sequences from one of the swans and the dog were 1,356 bp and approximately 1,147 bp long, respectively. Clustal analysis of all of the ITS sequences showed multiple 50- to 60-bp gaps and several mismatches among them. Parsimony analysis placed the Rhinosporidium ITS sequences in three well-supported sister groups according to the hosts' identities. This analysis strongly suggests that the genus Rhinosporidium may possess multiple host-specific strains. No correlation was found between this finding and the phenotypic features of R. seeberi in the studied samples. (+info)
Human anti-rhinosporidial antibody does not cause metabolic inactivation or morphological damage in endospores of Rhinosporidium seeberi, in vitro.
This report describes the use of the MTT-reduction and Evan's blue-staining tests for the assessment of the viability and morphological integrity, respectively, of rhinosporidial endospores after exposure to sera from rhinosporidial patients with high titres of anti-rhinosporidial antibody. Sera from three patients, with nasal, ocular and disseminated rhinosporidiosis respectively were used, with human serum without anti-rhinosporidial antibody for comparison, with or without added fresh guinea pig serum as a source of complement. All four sera tested, with or without guinea-pig serum, had no effect on the morphological integrity or the viability of the endospores and it is suggested that anti-rhinosporidial antibody has no direct protective role against the endospores, the infective stage, in rhinosporidiosis. This finding is compatible with the occurrence of chronicity, recurrence and dissemination that are characteristic of rhinosporidiosis despite the presence of high titres of anti-rhinosporidial antibody in patients with these clinical characteristics. The possible occurrence of humoral mechanisms of immunity that involve anti-rhinosporidial antibody with cells such as leucocytes and NK cells, in vivo, cannot yet be discounted, although the presence of high titres of anti-rhinosporidial antibody in patients with chronic, recurrent and disseminated lesions might indicate that such antibody is non-protective in vivo. (+info)
Lacazia loboi and Rhinosporidium seeberi: a genomic perspective.
In the past five years, with the use of molecular strategies the phylogenetic affinities of the two more resilient pathogens studied in medical mycology, Lacazia loboi and Rhinosporidium seeberi were finally deciphered. These studies found that L. loboi was the sister taxon to Paraccidioides brasiliensis, and R. seeberi was closely related to protistan spherical aquatic fish pathogens, located at the point were animals diverged from the fungi, in the class Mesomycetozoea. These initial studies indicated that a molecular strategy was the ideal approach to further understand these anomalous pathogens. However, the limited amount of information gathered so far from few DNA sequences, although crucial to place these organisms in the tree of life and to take a glance to their ecological preferences, did not provide answers to other important traits. In the following pages we discuss a genomic perspective for both pathogens and the benefit that such information could generate to understand more about these two uncultivated pathogens. (+info)
The effects of biocides (antiseptics and disinfectants) on the endospores of Rhinosporidium seeberi.
No data exists on the activity of biocides (antiseptics and disinfectants) on Rhinosporidium seeberi that causes rhinosporidiosis in humans and animals. On account of the inability to culture R. seeberi, in vitro, dyes were used to assess the morphological integrity and viability of biocide-treated endospores that are considered to be the infective stage of this pathogen. Evan's Blue (EvB) identifies the morphological integrity of the endospores while MTT (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2yl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) identifies metabolic activity through its reduction by cellular dehydrogenases to microscopically visible deposits of insoluble formazan. MTT-negativity has earlier been shown to correlate with absence of growth of yeast and mycelial fungi in culture and could thus indicate the loss of viability of MTT-negative rhinosporidial endospores. Hydrogen peroxide, glutaraldehyde, chloroxylenol, chlorhexidine, cetrimide, thimerosal, 70% ethanol, iodine in 70% ethanol, 10% formalin, povidone-iodine, sodium azide and silver nitrate were tested on freshly-harvested endospores and all biocides caused metabolic inactivation with or without altered structural integrity as shown by absence of MTT-staining after 3, 24 or 36 hour after exposure, while EvB stained only the endospores treated with sodium azide, ethanol, thimerosal, chloroxylenol, glutaraldehyde and hydrogen peroxide. With clinically useful biocides - chlorhexidine, cetrimide-chlorhexidine, 70% ethanol, povidone-iodine and silver nitrate, a total period of exposure of endospores to the biocide, for seven minutes, produced metabolic inactivation of the endospores. Anti-rhinosporidial antiseptics that could be used in surgery on rhinosporidial patients include povidone-iodine in nasal packs for nasal and naso-pharyngeal surgery, chlorhexidine and cetrimide-chlorhexidine on the skin, while povidone-iodine and silver nitrate could have application in ocular rhinosporidiosis. (+info)