Measurement of nasal patency in anesthetized and conscious dogs.
Experiments were undertaken to characterize a noninvasive chronic, model of nasal congestion in which nasal patency is measured using acoustic rhinometry. Compound 48/80 was administered intranasally to elicit nasal congestion in five beagle dogs either by syringe (0.5 ml) in thiopental sodium-anesthetized animals or as a mist (0.25 ml) in the same animals in the conscious state. Effects of mast cell degranulation on nasal cavity volume as well as on minimal cross-sectional area (A(min)) and intranasal distance to A(min) (D(min)) were studied. Compound 48/80 caused a dose-related decrease in nasal cavity volume and A(min) together with a variable increase in D(min). Maximal responses were seen at 90-120 min. Compound 48/80 was less effective in producing nasal congestion in conscious animals, which also had significantly larger basal nasal cavity volumes. These results demonstrate the utility of using acoustic rhinometry to measure parameters of nasal patency in dogs and suggest that this model may prove useful in studies of the actions of decongestant drugs. (+info)
Nasal patency is related to dust exposure in woodworkers.
OBJECTIVES: A cross sectional study of 54 furniture factories and three control factories was conducted to investigate the relation between subjective and objective nasal obstruction and exposure to wood dust. METHODS: Acoustic rhinometry was performed on 161 woodworkers and 19 controls. For each person, four measuring rounds were performed: before work, after 4 hours of work, and after 7 hours of work before and after decongestion. Before the first and third measuring round, each person rated the current feeling of nasal obstruction in the left and right nostril separately, using a visual analogue scale. Personal passive dust measurements were performed on 140 woodworkers. RESULTS: The mean (SD) of equivalent inhalable dust was relatively low, 1.17 (0.62) mg/m(3), range 0.17-3.44 mg/m(3). The exposure was divided into four levels: controls, low exposure, medium exposure, and high exposure. For the two highest concentrations of exposure, a significant increase in congestion--decreased nasal cavity volume and cross sectional areas--was found after 4 and 7 hours of work, compared with before work. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed positive correlations between concentration of dust and change in mucosal swelling. A significant increase in self rated nasal obstruction was found after work compared with before work for the two highest exposure groups. No correlation between objective nasal variables and self rated nasal obstruction was found. CONCLUSION: Exposure to wood dust was related in a dose dependent manner to acute nasal obstruction measured by acoustic rhinometry and self reported obstruction, but no correlation was found between measured and self reported obstruction. (+info)
Effects of paranasal sinus ostia and volume on acoustic rhinometry measurements: a model study.
We used pipe models to investigate the effects of paranasal sinus ostium size and paranasal sinus volume on the area-distance curves derived by acoustic rhinometry (AR). Each model had a Helmholtz resonator or a short neck as a side branch that simulated the paranasal sinus and sinus ostium. The AR-derived cross-sectional areas posterior to the ostium were significantly overestimated. Sinus volume affected the AR measurements only when the sinus was connected via a relatively large ostium. The experimental area-distance curve posterior to the side branch showed pronounced oscillations in association with low-frequency acoustic resonances in this distal part of the pipe. The experimental results are discussed in terms of theoretically calculated "sound-power reflection coefficients" for the pipe models used. The results indicate that the effects of paranasal sinuses and low-frequency acoustic resonances in the posterior part of the nasal cavity are not accounted for in the current AR algorithms. AR does not provide reliable information about sinus ostium size, sinus volume, or cross-sectional area in the distal parts of nasal cavity. (+info)
Effects of the nasal valve on acoustic rhinometry measurements: a model study.
The influence of nasal valve on acoustic rhinometry (AR) measurements was evaluated by using simple nasal cavity models. Each model consisted of a cylindrical pipe with an insert simulating the nasal valve. The AR-determined cross-sectional areas beyond the insert were consistently underestimated, and the corresponding area-distance curves showed pronounced oscillations. The area underestimation was more pronounced in models with inserts of small passage area. The experimental results are discussed in terms of theoretically calculated "sound-power reflection coefficients" for the pipe models. The reason for area underestimation is reflection of most of the incident sound power from the barrier at the front junction between the pipe and the insert. It was also demonstrated that the oscillations are due to low-frequency acoustic resonances in the portion of the pipe beyond the insert. The results suggest that AR does not provide reliable information about the cross-sectional areas of the nasal cavity posterior to a significant constriction, such as pathologies narrowing the nasal valve area. When the passage area of the nasal valve is decreased, the role of AR as a diagnostic tool for the entire nasal cavity becomes limited. (+info)
Acoustic rhinometry in dog and cat compared with a fluid-displacement method and magnetic resonance imaging.
An increasing number of studies have used acoustic rhinometry (AR) for study of pharmacological interventions on nasal cavity dimensions in dogs and cats, but there have been no attempts to validate AR in these species. This is done in the present study. We compared area-distance relationships of nasal cavities from five decapitated dogs (3.5-41 kg) and cats (3.8-6 kg). AR was compared with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and a fluid-displacement method (FDM) using perfluorocarbon. AR measured 88% (98-79%) (mean and 95% confidence interval) of nasal cavity volume in dogs determined by FDM and 71% (83-59%) in cats. AR markedly underestimated nasal cavity dimensions when minimum areas were below 0.1 cm2 in dogs and 0.05 cm2 in cats. AR underestimation increased with the severity of the constriction and with distance. Cross-sectional areas in the deeper parts of the cavity measured 76% (99-54%) of FDM in dogs and 52% (66-39%) in cats. AR agreed well with MR, especially in the deeper part of the cavity. MR images showed that the nasal cavities had a very complex structure not expected to be reproduced by AR. MR could not be considered a "gold standard" because definition of the cross-sectional area of the lumen depended critically on subjective choices. FDM produced repeatable measurements and possibly offers the most adequate reference in future evaluation of AR. AR underestimated what we believed were the most correct cross-sectional areas determined by FDM, especially in the deeper part of the dog and cat nasal cavities. Despite these difficulties, AR has been shown to be useful to describe qualitative changes in cross-sectional area. (+info)
Nasal cavity dimensions in guinea pig and rat measured by acoustic rhinometry and fluid-displacement method.
The purpose of the study was to measure nasal passageway dimensions in guinea pigs and rats by use of acoustic rhinometry (AR) and by a previously described fluid-displacement method (FDM) (Straszek SP, Taagehoej F, Graff S, and Pedersen OF. J Appl Physiol 95: 635-642, 2003) to investigate the potential of AR in pharmacological research with these animals. We measured the area-distance relationships by AR of nasal cavities postmortem in five guinea pigs (Duncan Hartley, 400 g) and five rats (Wistar, 250 g) by using custom-made equipment scaled for the purpose. Nosepieces were made from plastic pipette tips and either inserted into or glued onto the nostrils. We used liquid perfluorocarbon in the fluid-displacement study, and it was carried out subsequent to the acoustic measurements. We found for guinea pigs that AR measured a mean volume of 98 mm(3) (95-100 mm(3)) (mean and 95% confidence interval) of the first 2 cm of the cavity. FDM measured a mean volume of 146 mm(3) (117-175 mm(3)), meaning that AR only measured 70% (50-90) of the volume by FDM. For rats, the volume from 0 to 2 cm was 58 mm(3) (55-61 mm(3)) by AR and 73 mm(3) (60-87 mm(3)) by FDM, resulting in AR only measuring 83% (66-100%) of volume by FDM (see Table 2). We conclude that absolute nasal cavity dimensions are underestimated by AR in guinea pigs and rats. This does not preclude that relative changes may be correctly measured. In vivo trials with AR using rats have not yet been published. The FDM is possibly the most accurate alternative to AR for measurements of the nasal cavity geometry in small laboratory animals, but it can only be used postmortem. (+info)
Evaluation with acoustic rhinometry of patients undergoing sinonasal surgery.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of Acoustic Rhinometry in assessing surgical outcomes in sinonasal surgery. This prospective study was carried out from January till December 2001. A group of 44 patients who presented with nasal obstruction due to various rhinologic abnormality were examined with acoustic rhinometry pre and post-operatively. They were examined with acoustic rhinometry pre and post decongestion with cocaine and adrenaline. A highly significant correlation existed between minimal cross sectional area (MCA) and the subjective feeling of nasal problem, pre and post surgery. Thus MCA is a valuable parameter to express objectively the nasal patency. The mucovascular component of the nasal cavity plays a major role in the nasal patency as determined in the pre and post-decongestion acoustic rhinometry measurement. Acoustic rhinometry is a good tool to evaluate the nasal patency in cases where sinonasal surgery is considered in correcting the abnormality as well as for the post-operative evaluation. (+info)
Evaluation of nasal airway resistance during rapid maxillary expansion using acoustic rhinometry.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate nasal airway resistance (NAR) during rapid maxillary expansion (RME) using acoustic rhinometry (AR). The sample comprised 22 children (13 girls and nine boys) with maxillary constriction. The mean age was 12.9 +/- 1.54 years and all patients were found to have normal nasal cavities following anterior rhinoscopic examination. A modified bonded splint type RME appliance was used for expansion. AR was used to measure NAR before (T1), during (T2) and after (T3) expansion, and at the end of retention (T4). Each AR recording was performed, for each patient, with and without the use of a decongestant. Subjective evaluation of reported changes in nasal breathing were also undertaken at T3. The results showed that NAR was significantly reduced with the use of RME, with the main decrease observed during expansion (P < 0.05). The use of a decongestant was not found to have any effect on the results. Subjective evaluation showed that 59 per cent of patients considered that their nasal breathing had improved following RME. (+info)