A prospective study evidencing rhinomanometric and olfactometric outcomes in women taking oral contraceptives.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the changes in olfactory sensitivity of oral contraceptive (pill) users. METHODS: Sixty women underwent rhinomanometric and olfactometric determinations during the follicular, periovular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, and at day 7, 14 and 21 of contraceptive intake. Thirty-one women used 30 microg ethinyl oestradiol plus 75 microg gestodene and 29 women used 20 microg ethinyl oestradiol plus 150 microg desogestrel. RESULTS: Rhinomanometry showed higher but not statistically significant values during the periovular phase than in the follicular and luteal phases. Olfactometry showed a higher sensitivity during the follicular and periovular phases than during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. The rhinomanometric surveys in pill users were statistically different from those of the luteal phase (P < 0.02) and the follicular and periovular phases (P < 0.001). The olfactometric thresholds during the period of contraceptive use were statistically different from those of the follicular phase for a few odorous substances, and from those of the periovular phase for each odorous substance, but similar to those of the luteal phase (P = NS). CONCLUSIONS: Unlike the rhinomanometric airflow and trans-nasal pressure, the olfactory threshold to odours seems to depend on the variations of the ovarian steroids during the menstrual cycle and on the iatrogenic effects of oral contraceptives. (+info)
Intranasal volume and olfactory function.
The aim of this exploratory study was to identify the volume intranasal segments as they relate to parameters of olfactory function. Fifty healthy male volunteers (age range 22-59 years, mean age 28.5 years) were included. Olfactory function was measured by lateralized phenyl ethyl alcohol odor thresholds and odor discrimination, and by bilateral odor identification. Magnetic resonance imaging of the nasal cavity was performed immediately following olfactometry. To correlate the results of olfactometry with intranasal volume, each nasal cavity was divided into 11 segments. Significant correlations were found between the odor thresholds and volumes of the anterior part of the lower and upper meatus of the right nasal cavity. These results reveal that two nasal segments are important for inter-individual differences of odor thresholds in healthy subjects: (i) the segment in the upper meatus below the cribriform plate and (ii) the anterior segment of the inferior meatus. The latter finding is of special interest for nasal surgery, which allows modification of this volume through resection of the inferior turbinate and/or septoplasty. (+info)
Canine model of nasal congestion and allergic rhinitis.
The ragweed- and histamine-induced decreases in nasal patency in cohorts of ragweed-sensitized and nonsensitized dogs were assessed. The volume of nasal airways (V(NA)) was assessed by acoustic rhinometry and resistance to airflow (R(NA)) by anterior rhinomanometry. Histamine delivered to the nasal passages of five dogs caused a rapid and prolonged increase in R(NA) (0.75 +/- 0.26 to 3.56 +/- 0.50 cmH(2)O. l(-1). min), an effect that was reversed by intranasal delivery of aerosolized phenylephrine. Ragweed challenge in five ragweed-sensitized dogs increased R(NA) from 0.16 +/- 0.02 to 0.53 +/- 0.07 cmH(2)O. l(-1). min and decreased V(NA) from 12.5 +/- 1.9 to 3.9 +/- 0.3 cm(3), whereas administration of saline aerosol neither increased R(NA) nor decreased V(NA). Prior administration of d-pseudoephedrine (30 mg po) attenuated the ragweed-induced increase in R(NA) and decrease in V(NA). Ragweed challenge changed neither R(NA) nor V(NA) in four nonsensitized dogs. Mediator-induced nasal congestion and allergen-induced allergic rhinitis in ragweed-sensitized dogs, which exhibit symptoms similar to human disease, can be used in the evaluation of safety and efficacy of antiallergic activity of potential drugs. (+info)
Limitations of sniff nasal pressure in patients with severe neuromuscular weakness.
BACKGROUND: Inspiratory muscle strength in patients with neuromuscular disorders can be assessed using sniff inspiratory nasal pressure (Pn(sn)) and maximum inspiratory mouth pressure (PI(max)). However, the relative merits of Pn(sn) against PI(max) are not known in patients with severe neuromuscular disease. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether severity of disease modifies the relation between Pn(sn) and PI(max). METHODS: Vital capacity (VC), Pn(sn), and PI(max) were measured in 258 patients with neuromuscular disorders. RESULTS: Data were analysed from 241 patients, 17 being unable to perform PI(max) or Pn(sn) manoeuvres. The correlation between Pn(sn) and PI(max) was +0.94 (p<0.0001), with a mean (SD) difference between Pn(sn) and PI(max) of -4.8 (21.2) cm H(2)O (the limits of agreement were 37.6 and -47.2 cm H(2)O). VC (% predicted) was positively correlated with Pn(sn)/PI(max) (r = +0.86; p<0.0001), with a lower Pn(sn)/PI(max) value in patients with a VC <40% of predicted than in those with a VC >40% (0.80 (0.35) v 1.04 (0.41); p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: PI(max) is greater than Pn(sn) in patients with a severe restrictive ventilatory defect caused by neuromuscular disease. Pn(sn) may not accurately reflect inspiratory muscle strength in such patients and it is thus advisable to use both tests. (+info)
Inspiratory flow in the nose: a model coupling flow and vasoerectile tissue distensibility.
We have developed a discrete multisegmental model describing the coupling between inspiratory flow and nasal wall distensibility. This model is composed of 14 individualized compliant elements, each with its own relationship between cross-sectional area and transmural pressure. Conceptually, this model is based on flow limitation induced by the narrowing of duct due to collapsing pressure. For a given inspiratory pressure and for a given compliance distribution, this model predicts the area profile and inspiratory flow. Acoustic rhinometry and posterior rhinomanometry were used to determine the initial geometric area and mechanical characteristics of each element. The proposed model, used under steady-state conditions, is able to simulate the pressure-flow relationship observed in vivo under normal conditions (4 subjects) and under pathological conditions (4 vasomotor rhinitis and 3 valve syndrome subjects). Our results suggest that nasal wall compliance is an essential parameter to understand the nasal inspiratory flow limitation phenomenon and the associated increase of resistance that is well known to physiologists. By predicting the functional pressure-flow relationship, this model could be a useful tool for the clinician to evaluate the potential effects of treatments. (+info)
Olfactometric and rhinomanometric outcomes in post-menopausal women treated with hormone therapy: a prospective study.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effects of hormone therapy (HT) on olfactory sensitivity in post-menopausal women. METHODS: Forty-six naturally post-menopausal women underwent rhinomanometric and olfactometric measurements to compare nasal airflow resistance values and olfactometric thresholds during the eighth month of HT treatment with baseline levels prior to starting HT. Eighteen women used an oral HT regimen, and twenty-eight women used transdermal patch HT. RESULTS: Rhinomanometric values during HT were statistically differ from those at baseline (P < 0.001). Olfactometric threshold data indicated a higher sensitivity during the HT treatment than at baseline (P < 0.001). Finally, no statistically significant difference was observed among women using oral or patch HT administration on rhinomanometric and olfactometric values. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that 8 months of treatment with estrogen and progestogens in HT preparations has an effect on nasal airflow resistance and the olfactory thresholds to odours. We believe that estrogens could influence neuronal plasticity, and the neuronal conduction time into the olfactory system. Our findings confirm that gonadal steroids such as estrogen have an influence on non-genital targets; this relationship might have a beneficial impact on sensorineural communication and emotional behaviour. (+info)
Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and rhinitis in northern Greece.
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) constitutes one of the main factors responsible for morbidity and mortality worldwide. Rhinitis has a high prevalence, but its relationship to COPD has not been determined. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of COPD and rhinitis in northern Greece and to examine their correlation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Of a total of 8,151 subjects (aged 21-80 years, from three regions of northern Greece) invited to participate in the study, 6,112 (75%) were included. The regions studied were: (a) Thessaloniki (1,733 study participants, 52.7 +/- 18.6 years old), an urban area with particulate air pollution frequently exceeding the acceptable limit, (b) Eordea (3,537 study participants, 51.4 +/- 15.5 years old), a typical industrial area with particulate air pollution with daily values exceeding the acceptable limit and (c) Grevena (842 study participants, 55.6 +/- 15.4 years old), a mountainous area without pollution. The study participants filled in the questionnaire on respiratory symptoms of the Committee on Environmental and Occupational Health of the Medical Research Council and underwent spirometry and rhinomanometry tests. RESULTS: The prevalence of COPD was 5.6% (8.2% in men and 2.5% in women) and that of rhinitis 24.7% (27.4% in men and 21.4% in women). COPD and rhinitis are related to common predisposing factors (smoking, age and sex). Moreover, rhinitis is related to particulate air pollution levels. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of COPD and rhinitis in northern Greece does not differentiate from that found in other industrial countries. A functional relationship between upper and lower airways is speculated. (+info)
Respiratory manifestations due to nickel.
Nickel sulphate more frequently determines allergic dermatitis due to contact (contact eczema); less known are nasal inflammation (rhinitis) and bronchial asthma caused by nickel sulphate. Sporadic cases, often related to patients' work have been reported in the literature. The research described herein refers to 20 patients presenting clear nickel allergy with rhinitis (associated in 11 cases with asthma). The patients, all females, revealed positivity to this kind of allergy: patch test, prick tests with nickel sulphate, nasal provocation test by nickel sulphate, computed tomography of paranasal sinuses, spirometry and bronchial provocation test with metacholine, oral provocation test with nickel sulphate were employed. A strict long-term diet with food with low nickel content (2-4 months at least) led to a progressive reduction of nasal symptoms (rhinorrea, sneezing, nasal obstruction) and an improvement in bronchial symptoms and functional parameters. (+info)