The forward rate of binding of surface-tethered reactants: effect of relative motion between two surfaces.
The reaction of molecules confined to two dimensions is of interest in cell adhesion, specifically for the reaction between cell surface receptors and substrate-bound ligand. We have developed a model to describe the overall rate of reaction of species that are bound to surfaces under relative motion, such that the Peclet number is order one or greater. The encounter rate between reactive species is calculated from solution of the two-dimensional convection-diffusion equation. The probability that each encounter will lead to binding depends on the intrinsic rate of reaction and the encounter duration. The encounter duration is obtained from the theory of first passage times. We find that the binding rate increases with relative velocity between the two surfaces, then reaches a plateau. This plateau indicates that the increase in the encounter rate is counterbalanced by the decrease in the encounter duration as the relative velocity increases. The binding rate is fully described by two dimensionless parameters, the Peclet number and the Damkohler number. We use this model to explain data from the cell adhesion literature by incorporating these rate laws into "adhesive dynamics" simulations to model the binding of a cell to a surface under flow. Leukocytes are known to display a "shear threshold effect" when binding selectin-coated surfaces under shear flow, defined as an increase in bind rate with shear; this effect, as calculated here, is due to an increase in collisions between receptor and ligand with increasing shear. The model can be used to explain other published data on the effect of wall shear rate on the binding of cells to surfaces, specifically the mild decrease in binding within a fixed area with increasing shear rate. (+info)
Five caffeine metabolite ratios to measure tobacco-induced CYP1A2 activity and their relationships with urinary mutagenicity and urine flow.
To choose a sensitive protocol to discriminate populations exposed and not exposed to inducers, five urinary metabolite ratios (MRs) [MR1 (17X + 17U)/137X, MR2 (5-acetylamino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil [AFMU] + 1X + 1U)/17U, MR3 (17X/137X), MR4 (AFMU + 1X + 1U + 17X + 17U)/137X, and MR5 (AFMU + 1X + 1U)/17X] were calculated in 4-5 h and 0-24 h urine samples after caffeine intake. One hundred twenty-five healthy volunteers (59 nonsmokers and 66 smokers) were included in the study. All ratios showed a log-normal distribution. MR2 in the two time intervals was the only ratio nondependent on the urine flow. Differences between nonsmokers and smokers could be detected with all ratios at 4-5 h. However, only MR2 and, to a lesser extent, MR5 allowed the discrimination of higher cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) activity in smokers in the 0-24 h sample. Although smokers had increased urinary mutagenicity in relation to nonsmokers, a significant association between MRs and urine mutagenicity was observed only with MR2 in the 4-5 h interval; this ratio/time schedule being that of higher association with tobacco consumption. The most flow-dependent ratios, MR1, MR3, and MR4, were closely correlated with each other at the two intervals. The flow dependency profile of each ratio may explain their different power to indicate both tobacco exposure and tobacco-derived mutagenicity. In conclusion, MR2 in the period of 4-5 h after caffeine intake seems preferable, especially at high urine flow rates. (+info)
Single-polymer dynamics in steady shear flow.
The conformational dynamics of individual, flexible polymers in steady shear flow were directly observed by the use of video fluorescence microscopy. The probability distribution for the molecular extension was determined as a function of shear rate, gamma;, for two different polymer relaxation times, tau. In contrast to the behavior in pure elongational flow, the average polymer extension in shear flow does not display a sharp coil-stretch transition. Large, aperiodic temporal fluctuations were observed, consistent with end-over-end tumbling of the molecule. The rate of these fluctuations (relative to the relaxation rate) increased as the Weissenberg number, gamma;tau, was increased. (+info)
Chordal force distribution determines systolic mitral leaflet configuration and severity of functional mitral regurgitation.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the chordae tendineae force distribution on systolic mitral leaflet geometry and mitral valve competence in vitro. BACKGROUND: Functional mitral regurgitation is caused by changes in several elements of the valve apparatus. Interaction among these have to comply with the chordal force distribution defined by the chordal coapting forces (F(c)) created by the transmitral pressure difference, which close the leaflets and the chordal tethering forces (FT) pulling the leaflets apart. METHODS: Porcine mitral valves (n = 5) were mounted in a left ventricular model where leading edge chordal forces measured by dedicated miniature force transducers were controlled by changing left ventricular pressure and papillary muscle position. Chordae geometry and occlusional leaflet area (OLA) needed to cover the leaflet orifice for a given leaflet configuration were determined by two-dimensional echo and reconstructed three-dimensionally. Occlusional leaflet area was used as expression for incomplete leaflet coaptation. Regurgitant fraction (RF) was measured with an electromagnetic flowmeter. RESULTS: Mixed procedure statistics revealed a linear correlation between the sum of the chordal net forces, sigma[Fc - FT]S, and OLA with regression coefficient (minimum - maximum) beta = -115 to -65 [mm2/N]; p < 0.001 and RF (beta = -0.06 to -0.01 [%/N]; p < 0.001). Increasing FT by papillary muscle malalignment restricted leaflet mobility, resulting in a tented leaflet configuration due to an apical and posterior shift of the coaptation line. Anterior leaflet coapting forces increased due to mitral leaflet remodeling, which generated a nonuniform regurgitant orifice area. CONCLUSIONS: Altered chordal force distribution caused functional mitral regurgitation based on tented leaflet configuration as observed clinically. (+info)
von Willebrand factor contained in a high purity FVIII concentrate (Fanhdi) binds to platelet glycoproteins and supports platelet adhesion to subendothelium under flow conditions.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There is evidence suggesting that von Willebrand factor (VWF) from high purity factor VIII concentrates could be of clinical use in the management of patients suffering from VWD. We analyzed structural and functional characteristics of VWF present in a high purity factor VIII concentrate VWFHPC (Fanhdi). The multimeric structure, the ability to bind to platelet GP Ib/IX or GP IIb/IIIa, and the capacity of VWFHPC to promote platelet adhesion on injured vessels were investigated and compared with that present in standard plasma cryoprecipitates [VWFCRYO]. DESIGN AND METHODS: Binding studies were carried out by incubating radiolabeled VWF and washed platelets, which were activated with either ristocetin (1 mg/mL; for GP Ib/IX), or thrombin (2.5 U/mL; for GP IIb/IIIa). Platelet adhesion was assessed in a perfusion system (shear rate = 800 s-1, 10 min) in which the source of VWF was added (at 0.4 or 0.8 U/mL VWF:Ag) to washed platelets and red cells suspended in a human albumin solution. The deposition of platelets onto the perfused subendothelial surface was morphometrically evaluated and expressed as percentage of surface coverage (%SC). RESULTS: The VWFHPC (152 Units VWF:RCof/mg protein; VWF:RCof/VWF:Ag = 0.97), lacked only a small proportion of high-molecular-weight multimers present in VWFCRYO. Binding affinities (Kd values, nM) of VWFHPC were similar to those of VWFCRYO (5.3 +/- 0.86 vs 5.2 +/- 0.95, for GP Ib/IX; and 11.6 +/- 2.7 vs 15.4 +/- 1.7 for GPIIb-IIIa). A slightly, though not significantly, higher binding capacity for these receptors (Bmax values, molecules/pit) was obtained for VWFHPC. The %SC in perfusions in the presence of albumin was < 10%. Addition of VWFHPC or VWFCRYO significantly increased the %SC, with values of 27.1 +/- 4.9 and 17.5 +/- 2.8%, respectively with 0.4 U/mL (p < 0.004 and p < 0.02 vs albumin); and 30.8 +/- 4.9% and 20.03 +/- 4.1%, respectively, at 0.8 U/mL (p < 0.001 and p < 0.02 vs albumin). INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that VWF present in the high purity FVIII concentrate Fanhdi retains the functional capacity to bind to GPs Ib/IX and IIb/IIIa and to promote platelet adhesion onto exposed subendothelium. (+info)
Expression of functional selectin ligands on Th cells is differentially regulated by IL-12 and IL-4.
Immune responses may be qualitatively distinct depending on whether Th1 or Th2 cells predominate at the site of Ag exposure. T cell subset-specific expression of ligands for vascular selectins may underlie the distinct patterns of recruitment of Th1 or Th2 cells to peripheral inflammatory sites. Here we examine the regulation of selectin ligand expression during murine T helper cell differentiation. Large numbers of Th1 cells interacted with E- and P-selectin under defined flow conditions, while few Th2 and no naive T cells interacted. Th1 cells also expressed more fucosyltransferase VII mRNA than naive or Th2 cells. IL-12 induced expression of P-selectin ligands on Ag-activated naive T cells, even in the presence of IL-4, and on established Th2 cells restimulated in the presence of IL-12 and IFN-gamma. In contrast, Ag stimulation alone induced only E-selectin ligand. Interestingly, restimulation of established Th2 cells in the presence of IL-12 and IFN-gamma induced expression of P-selectin ligands but not E-selectin ligands; IFN-gamma alone did not enhance expression of either selectin ligand. In summary, functional P- and E-selectin ligands are expressed on most Th1 cells, few Th2 cells, but not naive T cells. Furthermore, selectin ligand expression is regulated by the cytokine milieu during T cell differentiation. IL-12 induces P-selectin ligand, while IL-4 plays a dominant role in down-regulating E-selectin ligand. (+info)
Volume flow estimation by colour duplex.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of volume blood flow using a digitised colour duplex scanner. DESIGN: Observer-blinded experimental study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Method comparison was performed with linear regression analysis of 89 paired observations in 11 anaesthetised pigs. A Siemens Sonoline Elegra ultrasound system was used for transcutaneous volume flow estimation using invasive transit time flowmetry by Cardiomed as a reference. RESULTS: For the individual measurement we found a standard error of the estimate (SEE) of 22 ml/min. For the regression line, however, the SEE was only 0.2 ml/min. CONCLUSIONS: Digitised colour-duplex sonography has a volume flow measurement error that is too high for single measurements in the individual patient for the method to be useful in clinical decision making, but sufficient for examinations of groups and comparison of groups. (+info)
Thiol oxidation of actin produces dimers that enhance the elasticity of the F-actin network.
Slow oxidation of sulfhydryls, forming covalently linked actin dimers and higher oligomers, accounts for increases in the shear elasticity of purified actin observed after aging. Disulfide-bonded actin dimers are incorporated into F-actin during polymerization and generate cross-links between actin filaments. The large gel strength of oxidized actin (>100 Pa for 1 mg/ml) in the absence of cross-linking proteins falls to within the theoretically predicted order of magnitude for uncross-linked actin filament networks (1 Pa) with the addition of sufficient concentrations of reducing agents such as 5 mM dithiothreitol or 10 mM beta-mercaptoethanol. As little as 1 gelsolin/1000 actin subunits also lowers the high storage modulus of oxidized actin. The effects of gelsolin may be both to increase filament number as it severs F-actin and to cover the barbed end of an actin filament, which otherwise might cross-link to the side of another filament via an actin dimer. These new findings may explain why previous studies of actin rheology report a wide range of values when purified actin is polymerized without added regulatory proteins. (+info)