A new coumarin identified as 5-hydroxy-6-methoxy-7-(3-methyl-but-2-enyloxy)-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one (isoobtusitin) was isolated from Psiadia dentata. This compound showed, in vitro, a moderate inhibitory activity against poliovirus and a very weak activity against (HIV), whereas it was inactive against (HSV1), (VSV), and murine tumoral cell lines (3LL, L1210). (+info)
Amputations among diabetics in Reunion Island.
OBJECTIVES: Our study allowed us to exhaustively list up all the cases of lower limb amputation carried out in the hospitals of the island from May 1st, 2000 to April 30, 2001. METHODS: We studied the medical files of all the diabetic patients having undergone a non traumatic amputation and they all had an interview with an inquiring doctor. RESULTS: 406 amputations (including 11 traumatic ones) have been carried out over the 12 months of our study. On a total of 395 non traumatic amputations, 70% were made among diabetics and concerned 278 patients among whom 179 are type 2 diabetics. Men are more concerned than women. If the distribution of amputation levels does not differ between diabetics and non-diabetics, the former more often undergo multiple interventions. 72% of the patients have a level of primary education, 59% have difficulties reading, and most of them have a very limited knowledge on their disease and do not practise any prevention for podologic traumatism. CONCLUSION: In a region where 718 220 inhabitants live and where the rate of diabetes prevalence is high (17.7% for 30-69 years), we could be afraid for the years to come of an important increase of the prevalence and diabetes chronic complications incidence rates. Authorities have to become aware of the current risks and of increasing equipments and personnel for the prevention and the follow-up of this insidious pathology. Programmes for the prevention of podologic complications should be supported by taking into account local specificities. (+info)
Signature of selective sweep associated with the evolution of sex-ratio drive in Drosophila simulans.
In several Drosophila species, the XY Mendelian ratio is disturbed by X-linked segregation distorters (sex-ratio drive). We used a collection of recombinants between a nondistorting chromosome and a distorting X chromosome originating from the Seychelles to map a candidate sex-ratio region in Drosophila simulans using molecular biallelic markers. Our data were compatible with the presence of a sex-ratio locus in the 7F cytological region. Using sequence polymorphism at the Nrg locus, we showed that sex-ratio has induced a strong selective sweep in populations from Madagascar and Reunion, where distorting chromosomes are close to a 50% frequency. The complete association between the marker and the sex-ratio phenotype and the near absence of mutations and recombination in the studied fragment after the sweep event indicate that this event is recent. Examples of selective sweeps are increasingly reported in a number of genomes. This case identifies the causal selective force. It illustrates that all selective sweeps are not necessarily indicative of an increase in the average fitness of populations. (+info)
Cystic fibrosis at the Reunion Island (France): spectrum of mutations and genotype-phenotype for the Y122X mutation.
BACKGROUND: The Reunion Island is a French administrative department located in the Indian Ocean between the islands of Madagascar and Mauritius. Its population is known to be at a high risk of cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: Data concerning all CF patients born at the Reunion Island was extracted from the French CF Registry. Twenty-eight DeltaF508/DeltaF508, 17 Y122X/DeltaF508, and 11 Y122X/Y122X were included in a genotype-phenotype study. RESULTS: The detection rate of the CFTR mutations was 83% among the CF patients born at the Reunion Island. Three CFTR mutations accounted for 75% of the detected CF alleles at the Reunion Island (DeltaF508, Y122X, and 3120 + 1G-->A.). The DeltaF508/DeltaF508, DeltaF508/Y122X, and Y122X/Y122X genotypes accounted for 60.2% of the CF patients. Patients carrying at least one Y122X mutation were pancreatic insufficient, had high sweat chloride values and significantly lower anthropometric measures. The mean anthropometric values in all three groups were lower that in the whole CF population followed in "continental" France. This may reflect the poor compliance and even the refusal of treatment noted by the clinicians. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of CFTR mutations could be explained by the history of the Reunion Island: admixture of French settlers, African and Asian populations, founder effect and isolation followed by genetic drift. The Y122X allele appears to be associated with a severe phenotype. (+info)
Population structure of Anopheles arabiensis on La Reunion island, Indian Ocean.
Anopheles arabiensis, together with Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, are the most important vectors of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. The malaria situation keeps worsening, with 1 to 3 million deaths a year, and alternative strategies are needed to decrease malaria transmission intensity. In this paper, we studied the population structure of An. arabiensis from three sample sites on the remote Indian Ocean island of La Reunion. Our results showed strong genetic structuring between An. arabiensis populations on La Reunion, indicating the presence of barriers to gene flow. Reasons for such a high genetic differentiation are discussed, including the role of intensive control measures that have maintained reduced effective population size as well as a putative genetic adaptation to the environment. This strong structuring situation on the island represents an ideal framework for the prospect of genetic-based control trials. (+info)
Bird pollination in an angraecoid orchid on Reunion Island (Mascarene Archipelago, Indian Ocean).
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although numerous angraecoid orchids in Madagascar display typical sphingophilous syndrome (i.e. white, nectariferous, long-spurred flowers, producing a strong scent at the crepuscule that is attractive to moths), three species of Angraecum in Reunion, belonging to the endemic section Hadrangis, have atypical unscented and short-spurred flowers. The aim of the study was to investigate the implication of plant-pollinator interaction on the evolution of floral morphology of these peculiar island floral forms. METHODS: The flower morphology of A. striatum (one of the three section Hadrangis species) was investigated by performing a set of floral measures, and the reproductive biology was investigated by a set of hand pollination experiments. Natural pollinators were observed by means of a digital video camera. Pollinator efficiency (pollen removal and deposition) and reproductive success (fruit set) were quantified once a week in natural field conditions during the 2005 flowering season (i.e. from January to March). KEY RESULTS: The orchid is self-compatible but requires a pollinator to achieve fruit set. Only one pollinator was observed, the endemic white-eye Zosterops borbonicus (Zosteropidae). These birds perched on inflorescences, and probed most fresh-looking flowers on each plant for nectar. Nectar was both abundant (averaging 7.7 microL) and dilute (averaging 9.7 % sugar in sucrose equivalents). Birds were mostly active between 0830 and 0930 h. Visits to plants were extremely short, lasting from 9 to 27 s. At the study site, 60.9 % of flowers had pollen removed, and 46.4 % had pollinia deposited on stigmas. The proportion of flowers that initiated a fruit averaged 20.6 % in natural conditions. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, a bird-pollinated orchid is described from a sub-tribe that is mainly specialized for moth pollination. This study documents a morphological shift in flowers in response to pollinator adaptations in the insular context of the Mascarene Archipelago. (+info)
Retrospective survey of Chikungunya disease in Reunion Island hospital staff.
Reunion Island (Indian Ocean) has been suffering from its first known Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) epidemic since February 2005. To achieve a better understanding of the disease, a questionnaire was drawn up for hospital staff members and their household. CHIKV infected about one-third of the studied population, the proportion increasing with age and being higher in women. Presence of a garden was associated with CHIKV infection. The geographical distribution of cases was concordant with insect vector Aedes albopictus distribution. The main clinical signs were arthralgia and fever. The disease evolved towards full recovery in 34.4% of cases, a relapse in 55.6%, or a chronic form in 10%. Paracetamol was used as a painkiller in 95% of cases, sometimes associated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticoids, or traditional herbal medicine. The survey provided valuable information on the factors that favour transmission, the clinical signs, the importance of relapses and the therapies used. (+info)
Outbreak of chikungunya on Reunion Island: early clinical and laboratory features in 157 adult patients.
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya is a reemerging disease. In 2005-2006, a severe outbreak occurred on Reunion Island in the southwestern part of the Indian Ocean. Other islands in this area were affected during the same period. METHODS: Adult patients with acute chikungunya (defined as onset of fever and/or polyarthralgia in the 5 days preceding consultation) and laboratory-confirmed chikungunya who were referred to Groupe Hospitalier Sud Reunion during the period from March 2005 through April 2006 were included in this retrospective study. Their clinical and laboratory features are reported. RESULTS: Laboratory-confirmed acute chikungunya was documented in 157 patients. The mean age of patients was 57.9 years, and the ratio of male to female patients was 1.24 : 1. Sixty percent of patients had at least 1 comorbidity. Ninety-seven patients (61.8%) were hospitalized, and 60 (38.2%) were treated as outpatients. Five fatalities were reported. One hundred fifty-one patients (96.1%) experienced polyarthralgia, and 129 (89%) experienced fever. Gastrointestinal symptoms were reported by 74 patients (47.1%), and skin rash was reported by 63 (40.1%). Hemorrhagic signs were rare. Lymphopenia and hypocalcemia were the prominent laboratory findings. Severe thrombocytopenia was rarely observed. CONCLUSIONS: Chikungunya virus can be responsible for explosive outbreaks of disease. Polyarthralgia and fever are the 2 main clinical features. In this era of travel and globalization, chikungunya should be considered in the differential diagnosis of febrile polyarthralgia with an abrupt onset. (+info)