Pancreaticoduodenectomy with or without extended retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy for periampullary adenocarcinoma: comparison of morbidity and mortality and short-term outcome. (1/364)

OBJECTIVE: This prospective, randomized, single-institution trial was designed to evaluate the end points of mortality, morbidity, and survival in patients undergoing standard versus radical (extended) pancreaticoduodenectomy (including distal gastrectomy and retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Numerous retrospective reports and one prospective randomized trial have suggested that the performance of an extended lymphadenectomy in association with a pancreaticoduodenal resection may improve long-term survival for some patients with pancreatic and other periampullary adenocarcinomas. Many of these previously published studies can be criticized for their retrospective and nonrandomized designs, for the inclusion of nonconcurrent control groups, and for their small numbers. METHODS: Between April 1996 and December 1997, 114 patients with periampullary adenocarcinoma were enrolled in an ongoing, prospective, randomized trial at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. After intraoperative verification of completely resected periampullary adenocarcinoma, the patients were randomized to receive either a standard pancreaticoduodenectomy (removing only the peripancreatic lymph nodes en bloc with the specimen) or a radical pancreaticoduodenectomy (standard resection plus distal gastrectomy and retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy). All pathology specimens were reviewed and categorized. The postoperative morbidity, mortality, and short-term outcomes were examined. RESULTS: Of the 114 patients randomized, 56 underwent a standard pancreaticoduodenectomy and 58 a radical pancreaticoduodenectomy. The two groups were statistically similar with regard to age and gender, but there was a higher percentage of white patients in the radical group. All the patients in the radical group underwent distal gastric resection, whereas 86% of the patients in the standard group underwent pylorus preservation. The mean operative time in the radical group was 6.8 hours, compared with 6.2 hours in the standard group. There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to the intraoperative blood loss, transfusion requirements, location of primary tumor, mean tumor size, positive lymph node status, or positive margin status. There were three deaths in the standard group and two in the radical group. The complication rates were 34% for the standard group and 40% for the radical group. Patients undergoing radical resection had a higher incidence of early delayed gastric emptying but had similar rates of other complications, such as pancreatic fistula, wound infection, intraabdominal abscess, and need for reoperation. The mean total number of lymph nodes resected was higher in the radical group. Of the 58 patients in the radical group, only 10% had metastatic carcinoma in the resected retroperitoneal lymph nodes, and none of those patients had the retroperitoneal nodes as the only site of lymph node involvement. The 1-year actuarial survival rate for patients surviving the immediate postoperative periods was 77% for the standard resection group and 83% for the radical resection group. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that radical pancreaticoduodenectomy (with the addition of a distal gastrectomy and extended retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy to a standard pancreaticoduodenectomy) can be performed with similar morbidity and mortality to standard pancreaticoduodenectomy. However, the survival data are not sufficiently mature and the numbers of patients enrolled are not adequate to allow firm conclusions to be drawn regarding survival benefit.  (+info)

Microbiology of retroperitoneal abscesses in children. (2/364)

Samples of pus from 41 children with retroperitoneal abscess treated between 1974 and 1994 yielded a total of 125 organisms (3.0 isolates/specimen); 58 isolates were aerobic and facultative species (1.4/specimen) and 67 were anaerobic (1.6/specimen). Aerobic bacteria only were isolated from 7 (17%) abscesses, anaerobic bacteria only from 3 (7%) and mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from 31 (76%); 34 (83%) infections were polymicrobial. The predominant aerobic and facultative isolates were Escherichia coli (19 isolates) and Staphylococcus aureus (6), and the predominant anaerobes were Peptostreptococcus spp. (18 isolates), Bacteroides spp. (22) and Prevotella spp. (5).  (+info)

Tumor necrosis factor alpha in various tissues of insulin-resistant obese Koletsky rats: relations to insulin receptor characteristics. (3/364)

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) was found to be significantly increased in skeletal muscles and retroperitoneal fat of obese insulin-resistant Koletsky rats as compared to control Wistar rats. This increase was accompanied by a depression of insulin receptor protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity. Neither the insulin-binding capacity nor insulin receptor affinity were related to this TNFalpha increase in these tissues. In the liver, no significant changes of TNFalpha content and only a lowering of insulin-binding capacity were found. It is concluded that an increased TNFalpha content in muscles and fat (but not in the liver) contributes to insulin resistance by lowering insulin receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity, while other insulin receptor characteristics (insulin-binding capacity and affinity of insulin receptors to the hormone) do not seem to be influenced by this factor.  (+info)

Comparison between the transabdominal and retroperitoneal approaches for aortic reconstruction in patients at high risk. (4/364)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the transabdominal approach with the retroperitoneal approach for elective aortic reconstruction in the patient who is at high risk. METHODS: From January 1992 through January 1997, 148 patients underwent aortic operations: 92 of the patients were classified as American Society of Anesthesia (ASA) class IV. Forty-four operations on the patients of ASA class IV were performed with the transabdominal approach (25 for abdominal aortic aneurysms and 19 for aortoiliac occlusive disease), and 48 operations were performed with the retroperitoneal approach (27 for abdominal aortic aneurysms and 21 for aortoiliac occlusive disease). There were no significant differences between the groups for comorbid risk factors or perioperative care. RESULTS: Among the patients of ASA class IV, eight (8.7%) died after operation (retroperitoneal, 3 [6.26%]; transabdominal, 5 [11.3%]; P =.5). There was no difference between groups in the number of pulmonary complications (retroperitoneal, 23 [47.9%]; transabdominal, 19 [43.2%]; P =.7) or in the development of incisional hernias (retroperitoneal, 6 [12.5%]; transabdominal, 5 [11.3%]; P =.5). The retroperitoneal approach was associated with a significant reduction in cardiac complications (retroperitoneal, 6 [12.5%]; transabdominal, 10 [22.7%]; P =.004) and in gastrointestinal complications (retroperitoneal, 5 [8.3%]; transabdominal, 15 [34.1%]). Operative time was significantly longer in the retroperitoneal group (retroperitoneal, 3.35 hours; transabdominal, 2.98 hours; P =.006), as was blood loss (retroperitoneal, 803 mL; transabdominal, 647 mL; P =.012). The patients in the retroperitoneal group required less intravenous narcotics (retroperitoneal, 36.6 +/- 21 mg; transabdominal, 49.5 +/- 28.5 mg; P =.004) and less epidural analgesics (retroperitoneal, 39.5 +/- 6.4 mg; transabdominal, 56.6 +/- 9.5 mg; P =.004). Hospital length of stay (retroperitoneal, 7.2 +/- 1.6 days; transabdominal, 12.8 +/- 2.3 days; P =.024) and hospital charges (retroperitoneal, $35,587 +/- $980; transabdominal, $54,832 +/- $1105; P =.04) were significantly lower in the retroperitoneal group. The survival rates at the 40-month follow-up period were similar between the groups (retroperitoneal, 81.3%; transabdominal, 78.7%; P =.53). CONCLUSION: In this subset of patients who were at high risk for aortic reconstruction, the postoperative complications were common. However, the number of complications was significantly lower in the retroperitoneal group. Aortic reconstruction in patients of ASA class IV appears to be more safely and economically performed with the retroperitoneal approach.  (+info)

Repair of type IV thoracoabdominal aneurysm with a combined endovascular and surgical approach. (5/364)

We report an unusual case of type IV Thoracoabdominal Aneurysm (TAA) with Superior Mesenteric Artery (SMA), celiac artery, and bilateral renal artery aneurysms in a patient who underwent an earlier repair of two infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) ruptures. Because of the presence of the visceral artery aneurysms and the earlier operation through the retroperitoneum, standard surgical treatment via a retroperitoneal approach with an inclusion grafting technique was considered difficult. A combined surgical approach achieving retrograde perfusion of all four visceral vessels and endovascular grafting allowing exclusion of the TAA was accomplished. Complete exclusion of the aneurysm and normal perfusion of the patient's viscera was documented by means of follow-up examinations at 3 and 6 months. The repair of a type IV TAA with a Combined Endovascular and Surgical Approach (CESA) allowed us to manage both the aortic and visceral aneurysms without thoracotomy or re-do retroperitoneal exposure and minimized visceral ischemia time. If the durability of this approach is confirmed, it may represent an attractive alternative in patients with aneurysmal involvement of the visceral segment of the aorta.  (+info)

Retroperitoneal multilocular bronchogenic cyst adjacent to adrenal gland. (6/364)

Bronchogenic cysts are generally found in the mediastinum, particularly posterior to the carina, but they rarely occur in such unusual sites as the skin, subcutaneous tissue, pericardium, and even the retroperitoneum. A 30-year-old Korean man underwent surgery to remove a cystic adrenal mass incidentally discovered during routine physical checkup. At surgery, it proved to be a multilocular cyst located in the retroperitoneum adjacent to the left adrenal gland. Microscopically, the cyst was lined by respiratory epithelium over connective tissue with submucous glands, cartilage and smooth muscle, thereby histologically confirming bronchogenic cyst. This is the first reported case of retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst in an adult without other congenital anomalies in Korea.  (+info)

The retroperitoneal approach to unusual abdominal aortic aneurysms. (7/364)

A retroperitoneal approach was used to repair an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm in three patients. The technique was used because of unusual pathology obscuring the aneurysm neck. We discuss the technique of retroperitoneal exposure and suggest advantages over conventional transperitoneal repair in patients with uncomplicated infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm.  (+info)

Retroperitoneal endoscopic ligation of lumbar and inferior mesenteric arteries as a treatment of persistent endoleak after endoluminal aortic aneurysm repair. (8/364)

A 74-year-old man receiving long-term anticoagulation therapy for intermittent atrial fibrillation had a type II endoleak after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. During an 8-month follow-up, the endoleak persisted, and the aneurysm failed to decrease in diameter. By means of a left flank retroperitoneal endoscopic surgical approach, the aneurysm was dissected free, and the lumbar arteries emanating from the aneurysm, as well as the inferior mesenteric artery, were ligated with titanium clips. A postoperative spiral computed tomography scan depicted one pair of unclipped lumbar arteries just proximal to the aortic bifurcation. After immediate reoperation with the same approach, complete thrombosis of the aneurysm sac was radiographically confirmed.  (+info)