(1/752) Outcome of the first 100 femoropopliteal angioplasties performed in the operating theatre.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the factors influencing outcome and restenosis in an initial series of 100 infrainguinal angioplasties. DESIGN: Prospective study of angioplasties of the superficial femoral and popliteal arteries performed over a 42-month period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred consecutive angioplasties in 96 patients performed in the operating theatre between January 1993 and June 1996 were followed prospectively with clinical, ABI, and duplex assessment. Forty-four procedures were for disabling claudication and 56 for critical ischaemia. Stents were deployed in 30 limbs. RESULTS: Angioplasty was successful in 84 of 100 limbs. Cumulative patency of the entire group at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months was 78%, 60%, 53%, and 49% respectively, while excluding initial failures, gave patencies of 95%, 69%, 63%, and 58%, respectively. Claudicants with a 1-year patency of 64% did significantly better than patients with critical ischaemia (44% p < 0.05). Angioplasties performed during the initial 21 months had a 1-year patency of 42%, while those performed in the final 21 months had a 74% patency (p = N.S.). The patency for stented arteries was 66% vs. 49% for angioplasty alone (p = N.S.). The 2-year limb salvage rate was 91% in patents with critical ischaemia. Forty-six per cent of restenoses were asymptomatic. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that while angioplasty is useful in treating infrainguinal arterial disease, there is a learning curve, resulting in a high restenosis rate for occlusive and multilevel disease, while concomitant placement of stents may be beneficial. (+info)
(2/752) Prospective multicentre study on the evaluation of antituberculosis treatment results in Italy: comparison of the culture- versus the smear-based methods. National AIPO Tuberculosis Study Group.
Cohort analysis of treatment outcomes is the most informative technique to evaluate the tuberculosis (TB) control programme. The aim of the study was to assess treatment outcomes comparing the smear- versus the culture-based methods, using data on TB patients treated under programme conditions in Italy. This was a prospective monitoring study based on the standardized collection of forms from a representative sample of Italian TB Units. The forms, with individual data, were reviewed and analysed on a quarterly basis according to the principles of cohort analysis, using both the smear- and culture-based methods. The complete bacteriological profile of patients was analysed at diagnosis and at completion of treatment. Nine hundred and ninety-two TB cases were notified. Among 681 pulmonary cases, 368 cases were culture-confirmed at diagnosis (333 new and 35 retreatment cases, 293 being sputum smear positive, 79.6%). At the end of treatment, out of the 333 new culture-confirmed cases, 136 (40.8%) were defined "cured" using the culture-based method and 108 (32.4%) using the smear-based method (p<0.05, chi2 test). The culture-based method is the recommended tool to evaluate pulmonary tuberculosis treatment results. Culture allows a more precise definition of a "cured" patient in both sputum smear positive and negative tuberculosis cases. (+info)
(3/752) Comparison between intracytoplasmic sperm injection and in-vitro fertilization (IVF) with high insemination concentration after total fertilization failure in a previous IVF attempt.
The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate whether couples with total fertilization failure in a previous in-vitro fertilization (IVF) attempt should be offered an additional IVF treatment with elevated insemination concentration or should be treated with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In 23 cycles 228 sibling metaphase II (MII) oocytes were randomly divided: 143 and 85 oocytes were utilized for ICSI and IVF respectively. Of the 143 injected (ICSI) oocytes, 90 (62.9%) were normally fertilized (two pronuclei), whereas 21 (14.7%) oocytes were damaged by the ICSI procedure. Of the fertilized oocytes 72 (80%) developed into transferable embryos. No fertilization at all was observed in the 85 sibling MII oocytes which were inseminated (P < 0.001). In all 23 cycles at least one embryo, obtained by ICSI, could be replaced. Eight pregnancies were achieved of which six resulted in the delivery of nine healthy children. In conclusion, for couples with no or almost no fertilization of oocytes in previous IVF attempts, ICSI appeared to be far superior to an additional IVF attempt with further elevated insemination concentrations. (+info)
(4/752) Assisted reproduction for infertile patients with 9 + 0 immotile spermatozoa associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.
We investigated the clinical feature of patients with totally immotile spermatozoa due to 9 + 0 ultrastructural flagellar defects and polycystic kidney disease. We also tried to establish the feasibility of applying modern assisted reproduction technology (ART) in these patients. During 6-year interval a total of 1956 Japanese men were referred to the male infertility clinic. Of them, 16 were diagnosed to have immotile spermatozoa and four of them exhibited axonemal 9 + 0 defects in the sperm flagella. These four also had autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Intrauterine insemination (IUI) and conventional in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer failed to achieve fertilization. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with 100% immotile spermatozoa was performed in all four cases. Two-pronuclear fertilization was obtained in 27 of the 70 (38.6%) of the successfully injected oocytes, but no pregnancy resulted. In one case, a few motile spermatozoa were present at the second cycle of ICSI, a pregnancy was successfully achieved using these spermatozoa. While immotile spermatozoa from patients with the axonemal 9 + 0 defect achieved fertilization by ICSI, the embryos failed to develop. Our results indicate that the central microtubules may play a role in fetal development. Since the 4 patients with 9 + 0 defects also had ADPKD, the genetic linkage between these two conditions should be studied by molecular biological methods so as to aid our ability to counsel such patients. (+info)
(5/752) Is redo percutaneous mitral balloon valvuloplasty (PMV) indicated in patients with post-PMV mitral restenosis?
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the immediate and long-term outcome of repeat percutaneous mitral balloon valvuloplasty (PMV) for post-PMV mitral restenosis. BACKGROUND: Symptomatic mitral restenosis develop in 7% to 21% of patients after PMV. Currently, most of these patients are referred for mitral valve replacement. However, it is unknown if these patients may benefit from repeat PMV. METHODS: We report the immediate outcome and long-term clinical follow-up results of 36 patients (mean age 58+/-13 years, 75% women) with symptomatic mitral restenosis after prior PMV, who were treated with a repeat PMV at 34.6+/-28 months after the initial PMV. The mean follow-up period was 30+/-33 months with a maximal follow-up of 10 years. RESULTS: An immediate procedural success was obtained in 75% patients. The overall survival rate was 74%, 72% and 71% at one, two, and three years respectively. The event-free survival rate was 61%, 54% and 47% at one, two, and three years respectively. In the presence of comorbid diseases (cardiac and noncardiac) the two-year event-free survival was reduced to 29% as compared with 86% in patients without comorbid diseases. Cox regression analysis identified the echocardiographic score (p = 0.03), post-PMV mitral valve area (p = 0.003), post-PMV mitral regurgitation grade (p = 0.02) and post-PMV pulmonary artery pressure (p = 0.0001) as independent predictors of event-free survival after repeat PMV. CONCLUSIONS: Repeat PMV for post-PMV mitral restenosis results in good immediate and long-term outcome in patients with low echocardiographic scores and absence of comorbid diseases. Although the results are less favorable in patients with suboptimal characteristics, repeat PMV has a palliative role if the patients are not surgical candidates. (+info)
(6/752) Balloon reconstructive technique for the treatment of a carotid cavernous fistula.
Endovascular treatment of carotid cavernous fistulas (CCFs) presents many technical difficulties and hazards, some unique to each patient. This report details some of the difficulties encountered in the treatment of a 63-year-old patient with a CCF and an ipsilateral internal carotid artery dissection. After failure of conventional techniques using a detachable balloon, complete closure of the CCF was achieved by transvenous coil embolization while the arterial lumen was protected by a nondetachable balloon catheter. (+info)
(7/752) Humoral and cellular immune responses up to 7.5 years after administration of streptokinase for acute myocardial infarction.
AIMS: Administration of streptokinase results in an immunological response which may lead to increased risk of anaphylactic reaction or reduced thrombolytic efficacy on repeat administration. For these reasons current recommendations suggest that streptokinase should not be given up to 1 year after first administration. We sought to define the profile of both the circulating antibody and T-cell response to streptokinase in patients who had received streptokinase up to 7.5 years previously following acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: Neutralizing anti-streptokinase antibody and total anti-streptokinase IgG were measured in 219 patients who had suffered acute myocardial infarction between 12 and 90 months previously and had received streptokinase. T-cell response to streptokinase was assessed by in-vitro proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (n=234). Data on all parameters were available in 184 patients. Controls (n=22) had suffered acute myocardial infarction between 73 and 84 months previously but had not received thrombolytic therapy. RESULTS: Compared to controls, anti-streptokinase antibodies were elevated at all time periods from 12 to 90 months after streptokinase treatment. Total anti-streptokinase titres showed the expected correlation with neutralizing anti-streptokinase antibodies (P<0.0001). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed a vigorous in-vitro proliferative response to streptokinase 6 days after treatment (P=0.05 vs pre-treatment), but this was not detectable at 6 weeks or subsequently. CONCLUSION: There is as yet no evidence of a time limit beyond which administration of streptokinase on a second occasion can be regarded as safe and likely to be effective. Measurement of neutralizing anti-streptokinase or total anti-streptokinase IgG titre appear to provide equivalent information regarding the antibody status of a population. Further studies are required regarding the apparent lack of peripheral blood mononuclear cells responsiveness in patients previously exposed to streptokinase. (+info)
(8/752) A randomized trial of elective stenting after balloon recanalization of chronic total occlusions.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the role of Wiktor stent implantation after recanalization of chronic total coronary occlusions with regard to the clinical and angiographic outcome after six months. BACKGROUND: Beside the common use of stents in clinical practice, the number of stent indications proven by randomized trials is still limited. METHODS: Eighty-five patients with a thrombolysis in myocardial infarction grade 0 chronic coronary occlusion were examined. After standard balloon angioplasty, the patients were randomly assigned to stent implantation, or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) alone (no further intervention). Quantitative coronary angiography was performed at baseline and after six months. RESULTS: The minimal lumen diameter did not differ immediately after recanalization (stent group 1.61 +/- 0.30 mm vs. PTCA group 1.65 +/- 0.36 mm), and increased after stent implantation to 2.51 +/- 0.41 mm. After six months, the stent group still had a significantly greater lumen (1.57 +/- 0.59 vs. 1.06 +/- 0.90 mm; p < 0.01) and a significantly lower restenosis and reocclusion rate (32% and 3%) compared with the PTCA group (64% and 24%); restenosis analysis according to treatment was 72% (PTCA) versus 29% (stent, p < 0.01). Late loss was equal in both groups. At follow-up, the stent patients had a better angina class (p < 0.01), and fewer cardiac events (p < 0.03). A meta-analysis including this trial and three other controlled trials with the Palmaz-Schatz stent showed concordant results. CONCLUSIONS: Stent implantation after reopening of a chronic total occlusion provides a better angiographic result, corresponding to a better clinical outcome with fewer recurrence of symptoms and reinterventions after six months. (+info)