Isolation and chromosomal localization of a new human retinoblastoma binding protein 2 homologue 1a (RBBP2H1A).
Using a NotI linking clone NR-025 as a probe, we isolated a novel putative member of the RB binding protein family, namely a human retinoblastoma binding protein 2 homologue (RBBP2H1A). The maximal open reading frame encodes a protein of 1681 amino acids. Homology analysis indicated that the predicted product has an overall 56% amino acid identity to RBBP2, which plays an important role in RB tumor suppressor regulation. Many extended regions are 100% identical in amino acids sequences. The degree of nucleotide identity is lower. The structure prediction analysis identified three DNA-binding zinc finger domains and two bipartite nuclear localization signals. Northern expression analysis revealed expression in all tissues; however, the level of expression significantly varied between tissues. The highest level of expression was detected in testis and the lowest in skeletal muscle. The mRNA sizes corresponding to two major products are around 6kb and 7kb. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, we mapped the gene to chromosomal band 1q32.1. (+info)
A screen for new trithorax group genes identified little imaginal discs, the Drosophila melanogaster homologue of human retinoblastoma binding protein 2.
The proteins encoded by two groups of conserved genes, the Polycomb and trithorax groups, have been proposed to maintain, at the level of chromatin structure, the expression pattern of homeotic genes during Drosophila development. To identify new members of the trithorax group, we screened a collection of deficiencies for intergenic noncomplementation with a mutation in ash1, a trithorax group gene. Five of the noncomplementing deletions uncover genes previously classified as members of the Polycomb group. This evidence suggests that there are actually three groups of genes that maintain the expression pattern of homeotic genes during Drosophila development. The products of the third group appear to be required to maintain chromatin in both transcriptionally inactive and active states. Six of the noncomplementing deficiencies uncover previously unidentified trithorax group genes. One of these deficiencies removes 25D2-3 to 26B2-5. Within this region, there are two, allelic, lethal P-insertion mutations that identify one of these new trithorax group genes. The gene has been called little imaginal discs based on the phenotype of mutant larvae. The protein encoded by the little imaginal discs gene is the Drosophila homologue of human retinoblastoma binding protein 2. (+info)
Retinoblastoma-binding protein 2 (Rbp2) potentiates nuclear hormone receptor-mediated transcription.
Retinoblastoma-binding protein 2 (Rbp2) was originally identified as a retinoblastoma protein (RB) pocket domain-binding protein. Although Rbp2 has been shown to interact with RB, p107, TATA-binding protein, and T-cell oncogene rhombotin-2, the physiological function of Rbp2 remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that Rbp2 not only binds to nuclear receptors (NRs) but also enhances the transcription mediated by them. Rbp2 interacts with the DNA-binding domains of NRs and potentiates NR-mediated transcription in an AF-2-dependent manner. Both the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of Rbp2 are critical for the transactivation activity of Rbp2 on NRs. The C terminus is the NR-interacting region. In addition, RB functions in maximizing the effect of Rbp2 on the transcription by NRs. These results suggest that Rbp2 is a coregulator of NRs and define a potential role for Rbp2 in NR-mediated transcription. (+info)
A novel protein with similarities to Rb binding protein 2 compensates for loss of Chk1 function and affects histone modification in fission yeast.
The conserved protein kinase Chk1 mediates cell cycle progression and consequently the ability of cells to survive when exposed to DNA damaging agents. Cells deficient in Chk1 are hypersensitive to such agents and enter mitosis in the presence of damaged DNA, whereas checkpoint-proficient cells delay mitotic entry to permit time for DNA repair. In a search for proteins that can improve the survival of Chk1-deficient cells exposed to DNA damage, we identified fission yeast Msc1, which is homologous to a mammalian protein that binds to the tumor suppressor Rb (RBP2). Msc1 and RBP2 each possess three PHD fingers, domains commonly found in proteins that influence the structure of chromatin. Msc1 is chromatin associated and coprecipitates a histone deacetylase activity, a property that requires the PHD fingers. Cells lacking Msc1 have a dramatically altered histone acetylation pattern, exhibit a 20-fold increase in global acetylation of histone H3 tails, and are readily killed by trichostatin A, an inhibitor of histone deacetylases. We postulate that Msc1 plays an important role in regulating chromatin structure and that this function modulates the cellular response to DNA damage. (+info)
Retinoblastoma-binding protein 2-homolog 1: a retinoblastoma-binding protein downregulated in malignant melanomas.
In malignant melanomas, the loss of cell cycle control is thought to be due to a lack of retinoblastoma protein (pRb)-activity. Members of the previously described family of retinoblastoma-binding proteins (RBPs) are supposed to act as pRb-modulating factors. Based on RNA-fingerprinting of normal human melanocytes, we previously described a new family member with high sequence homology to the retinoblastoma-binding protein-2 (RBP-2), termed RBP2-Homolog 1 (RBP2-H1). Based on its UVB responsiveness, it was hypothesized that this gene may also play a role in melanocytic tumors. In the present study, we can confirm by real-time RT-PCR (six common melanocytic nevi, five advanced nodular melanomas and seven melanoma metastases) and immunohistochemistry (tissue microarrays: 52 melanocytic nevi, 60 melanomas, 60 metastases; and conventional sections: five common nevi, four advanced nodular melanomas, five melanoma metastases) that RBP2-H1 expression is progressively downregulated in advanced and metastatic melanomas in vivo with a certain intratumoral heterogeneity. Whereas benign melanocytic nevi are RBP2-H1 positive in about 70% of the cases, a lack of RBP2-H1 expression was found in 90% of the primary malignant melanomas and 70% of the melanoma metastases, respectively. Interestingly, a similar deficiency can be found in glioblastomas, but not epithelial cancers. In accordance to the in vivo data, established melanoma cell lines exhibit low but heterogeneous levels of RBP2-H1 expression. By co-immunoprecipitation, we provide the first evidence that a subfraction of total RBP2-H1 can bind to pRb, which makes this protein a true pRb-interacting factor. We conclude that loss of RBP2-H1 is a common finding in the progression of malignant melanomas. Since a direct interaction of RBP2-H1 and pRb seems possible, the loss of RBP2-H1 may possibly contribute to uncontrolled growth in malignant melanomas. (+info)
Master or slave: the complex relationship of RBP2 and pRb.
The retinoblastoma protein or its regulators are altered in most human cancers. Although commonly thought of as solely a repressor of E2F-dependent transcription and cell cycle progression, pRb has gained notoriety in recent years as a key actor in cellular differentiation programs. In the June issue of Molecular Cell, Benevolenskaya et al. report that a long-known but poorly understood pRb interactor, RBP2, acts as an inhibitor of differentiation contributing to pRb's role as a coordinator of differentiation and cell cycle exit. Loss of pRb may unleash RBP2, maintaining cells in a poorly differentiated progenitor state that is prerequisite to tumor formation. (+info)
The X-linked mental retardation gene SMCX/JARID1C defines a family of histone H3 lysine 4 demethylases.
Histone methylation regulates chromatin structure and transcription. The recently identified histone demethylase lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is chemically restricted to demethylation of only mono- and di- but not trimethylated histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3). We show that the X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) gene SMCX (JARID1C), which encodes a JmjC-domain protein, reversed H3K4me3 to di- and mono- but not unmethylated products. Other SMCX family members, including SMCY, RBP2, and PLU-1, also demethylated H3K4me3. SMCX bound H3K9me3 via its N-terminal PHD (plant homeodomain) finger, which may help coordinate H3K4 demethylation and H3K9 methylation in transcriptional repression. Significantly, several XLMR-patient point mutations reduced SMCX demethylase activity and binding to H3K9me3 peptides, respectively. Importantly, studies in zebrafish and primary mammalian neurons demonstrated a role for SMCX in neuronal survival and dendritic development and a link to the demethylase activity. Our findings thus identify a family of H3K4me3 demethylases and uncover a critical link between histone modifications and XLMR. (+info)
RBP2 belongs to a family of demethylases, specific for tri-and dimethylated lysine 4 on histone 3.
Methylation of histones has been regarded as a stable modification defining the epigenetic program of the cell, which regulates chromatin structure and transcription. However, the recent discovery of histone demethylases has challenged the stable nature of histone methylation. Here we demonstrate that the JARID1 proteins RBP2, PLU1, and SMCX are histone demethylases specific for di- and trimethylated histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4). Consistent with a role for the JARID1 Drosophila homolog Lid in regulating expression of homeotic genes during development, we show that RBP2 is displaced from Hox genes during embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation correlating with an increase of their H3K4me3 levels and expression. Furthermore, we show that mutation or RNAi depletion of the C. elegans JARID1 homolog rbr-2 leads to increased levels of H3K4me3 during larval development and defects in vulva formation. Taken together, these results suggest that H3K4me3/me2 demethylation regulated by the JARID1 family plays an important role during development. (+info)