The relaxant effects of parathyroid hormone(1-34) and parathyroid hormone-related protein(1-34) on ovine reticulo-ruminal smooth muscle in vivo.
The motility of the reticulo-rumen has been measured in trained, conscious sheep using inflated balloons temporarily introduced to selected regions of that forestomach. The frequency and amplitude of the contractions of the reticulum and both the A and B waves of contraction of the rumen were measured under the same conditions before, during and after the administration of an i.v. bolus of either parathyroid hormone (PTH(1-34)) or PTH-related protein (PTHrP(1-34)) followed by its i.v. infusion. These two peptides are known to share a common receptor in other organs, e.g. the kidney. In this study they both showed an inhibitory effect on reticulo-ruminal motility. The effect of PTHrP(1-34) on the rate of ruminal blood flow was also examined and a significant reduction observed, after a transient increase. The secretion of endogenous PTH(1-34) was stimulated by a 32% reduction in the plasma calcium ion concentration induced by an i.v. infusion of sodium citrate. Associated with this were significant reductions in reticulo-ruminal motility, e.g. the reduction in the mean amplitude of the reticular contractions reflected the reduction in plasma calcium ion concentration. When the PTH(1-34)/PTHrP(1-34) receptor was blocked with [Asn10,Leu11,D-Trp12]PTHrP(7-34) before and during the induction of hypocalcaemia, all but one of the parameters of reticulo-ruminal motility were normalized. Indeed, by the day following the administration of this blocking agent, all these parameters had returned to their normal range. It is concluded that stimulation of the PTH(1-34)/PTHrP(1-34) receptor in reticulo-ruminal smooth muscle reduces the motility of this tissue and may play a role in the depression of motility of the digestive tract which is characteristic of clinical milk fever in the dairy cow. (+info)
Ergot alkaloid transport across ruminant gastric tissues.
Ergot alkaloids cause fescue toxicosis when livestock graze endophyte-infected tall fescue. It is generally accepted that ergovaline is the toxic component of endophyte-infected tall fescue, but there is no direct evidence to support this hypothesis. The objective of this study was to examine relative and potential transport of ergoline and ergopeptine alkaloids across isolated gastric tissues in vitro. Sheep ruminal and omasal tissues were surgically removed and placed in parabiotic chambers. Equimolar concentrations of lysergic acid, lysergol, ergonovine, ergotamine, and ergocryptine were added to a Kreb's Ringer phosphate (KRP) solution on the mucosal side of the tissue. Tissue was incubated in near-physiological conditions for 240 min. Samples were taken from KRP on the serosal side of the chambers at times 0, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min and analyzed for ergot alkaloids by competitive ELISA. The serosal KRP remaining after incubation was freeze-dried and the alkaloid species quantified by HPLC. The area of ruminal and omasal tissues was measured and the potential transportable alkaloids calculated by multiplying the moles of transported alkaloids per square centimeter of each tissue type by the surface area of the tissue. Studies were conducted to compare alkaloid transport in reticular, ruminal, and omasal tissues and to determine whether transport was active or passive. Ruminal tissue had greater ergot alkaloid transport potential than omasal tissue (85 vs 60 mmol) because of a larger surface area. The ruminal posterior dorsal sac had the greatest potential for alkaloid transport, but the other ruminal tissues were not different from one another. Alkaloid transport was less among reticular tissues than among ruminal tissues. Transport of alkaloids seemed to be an active process. The alkaloids with greatest transport potential were lysergic acid and lysergol. Ergopeptine alkaloids tended to pass across omasal tissues in greater quantities than across ruminal tissues, but their transport was minimal compared to lysergic acid and lysergol. (+info)
Effects of small ruminal boluses used for electronic identification of lambs on the growth and development of the reticulorumen.
Fifty-four male lambs were used to study the effects of two types of small electronic boluses on the dimensions and epithelial characteristics of their reticulorumen. Newborn lambs were assigned according to bolus type and age of application to the following treatments: 1) control (C, n = 21), without bolus; 2) mini (M, n = 21), identified with a 9.3 x 37.4-mm, 5.2-g bolus during the first week after birth; and 3) small (S, n = 12), identified with a 15.0 x 39.1-mm, 20-g bolus after weaning at wk 5, when lambs weighed more than 12 kg. After weaning, lambs were given ad libitum access to concentrate and barley straw. Six lambs were euthanized at the start of the experiment to measure initial reticulorumen characteristics. Ten lambs (five from M and five from C treatments) were slaughtered at weaning and 24 (eight per treatment) were slaughtered when they reached 24 kg. After bolus recovery, the reticulorumen was emptied and filled with polyurethane foam to obtain reticulorumen casts. Weight of the emptied reticulorumen and volume of the casts were measured. Four representative lambs from each treatment were also slaughtered at 24 kg, and their reticulorumen used to evaluate papillae size, number of dead cells, and degree of keratinization of both the reticulum wall and the rumen wall epithelia. Weight at weaning (13.8 kg), age at the end of fattening (65 d), and mortality rate (4%) did not differ among treatments. Retention rate for M and S boluses was 82.4 and 100%, respectively. Fresh weight and volume of the reticulorumen did not differ among treatments at weaning (130 g and 1,679 mL) or at the end of the fattening period (640 g and 5,931 mL). Lambs in the M treatment had greater (P < 0.05) rumen papillae size and lower (P < 0.10) keratinization than C lambs; values in the S lambs were intermediate between M and C lambs. Neither the M nor S type of bolus affected dimensions of the reticulorumen, but the earlier presence of M boluses induced a greater papillae size, with no negative effects on health and fattening performances of young lambs. (+info)
Report of Balanorchis anastrophus in Para State with surface topography by scanning electron microscopy.
Balanorchis anastrophus Fischoeder, 1901, from the reticulum of Bos taurus is reported for the first time in the State of Para, Brazil. The surface topography as revealed by scanning electron microscopy is presented. (+info)
Cotylophoron Travassosi sp. n. (Trematoda--Paramphistomidae) from cattle.
A new species of the genus Cotylophoron (Trematoda--Paramphistomidae) --Cotylophoron travassosi sp. n.--is described. The measurements of the worm and its structures are compared with the valid known species. (+info)
Intrinsic innervation patterns of the smooth muscle in the rumen and reticulum of lambs.
The rumen and reticulum of sheep serve as a fermentation chamber. Both compartments exhibit specific motility patterns. With developmental changes, the size of the reticulorumen dramatically increases when newborn lambs mature to adult sheep. This makes it possible to investigate the intrinsic innervation of the reticuloruminal muscles in lambs by taking the entire reticulum and rumen into account. The aim of the study was to analyse the projections and neurochemistry of myenteric neurons in the rumen and reticulum, which project to the inner or outer muscle layer, respectively. Therefore, we applied retrograde tracing with the fluorescent dye 1,1'-didodecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethyl-indocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) and subsequent immunohistochemical detection of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). In both compartments innervation of both the inner and the outer muscle layer consisted mainly of cholinergic neurons (65-70%). The majority of them co-localized SP. The non-cholinergic neurons projecting to the muscle expressed immunoreactivity for VIP. Polarized innervation of the muscle layers was found neither in the rumen nor in the reticulum. Consequently, intrinsic innervation patterns for the smooth muscle layers in the rumen and reticulum differ from all gastrointestinal regions examined thus far. (+info)
Disappearance of acetic acid from the bovine reticulorumen at basal and elevated concentrations of acetic acid.
Disappearance of acetic acid was quantified to determine whether removal of this acid from the reticulorumen is altered when ruminal acetic acid concentrations are elevated. Ruminally fistulated beef steers (n = 3 per experiment; BW = 320 +/- 9 kg) were fed eight times daily a 46% corn-based concentrate:54% mixed hay diet to meet maintenance energy requirements (3.5 kg of DM/d). In situ production of acetic acid, determined by pulsed-continuous infusion of [1-14C]acetic acid, was 530 mmol/h (CV = 12%). Disappearance from the reticulorumen (i.e., presumed absorption) was 460 mmol/h (CV = 2%) or 87% (CV = 2%) of ruminal production. Variation is described within an operational steady state. Acetic acid concentrations were increased by continuous infusion of unlabeled acetic acid into the reticulorumen. Ruminal disappearance (mmol/h) increased when this simulated production was elevated up to and exceeding in situ rates reported previously (530 to 2,700 mmol/h). These data suggest that two-thirds to three-fourths of ruminal acetate production disappeared across the reticuloruminal wall when concentration was elevated; the complement exited from the rumen with the liquid phase. The reticulorumen has an additional capacity to remove acetic acid; however, it does so with an apparent reduced efficiency at higher production rates. Liquid out-flow may affect the efficiency of reticuloruminal disappearance. Sites distal to the rumen become quantitatively important when ruminal acetic acid concentrations are increased. (+info)
Splanchnic metabolism of volatile fatty acids absorbed from the washed reticulorumen of steers.
Six steers fitted with a ruminal cannula and chronic indwelling catheters in the mesenteric artery, mesenteric vein, hepatic portal vein, hepatic vein, as well as in the right ruminal vein were used to study metabolism of VFA absorbed from buffers in the emptied and washed reticulorumen. [2-(13)C]Acetate was infused into a jugular vein to study portal-drained visceral (PDV) uptake of arterial acetate, hepatic unidirectional uptake of acetate, and whole-body irreversible loss rate (ILR). Isobutyrate was infused into the right ruminal vein to calibrate VFA fluxes measured in the portal vein. On sampling days, the rumen was emptied and incubated in sequence with a 0-buffer (bicarbonate buffer without VFA), a VFA-buffer plus continuous intraruminal infusion of VFA, and finally another 0-buffer. Ruminal VFA absorption was determined as VFA uptake from the VFA-buffer and metabolic effects determined as the difference between metabolite fluxes with VFA-buffer and 0-buffers. Steady absorption rates of VFA were maintained during VFA-buffer incubations (4 h; 592+/-16, 257+/-5, 127+/-2, 17+/-<1, 20+/-<1 mmol/h, respectively, of acetate, propionate, butyrate, isovalerate, and valerate). The portal flux of acetate corrected for PDV uptake of arterial acetate accounted for 105+/-3% of the acetate absorption from the rumen, and the net portal flux of propionate accounted for 91+/-2% of propionate absorption. Considerably less butyrate (27+/-3%) and valerate (30+/-3%) could be accounted for in the portal vein. The sum of portal VFA and 3-hydroxybutyrate as well as lactate represented 99+/-3% of total VFA acetyl units and 103+/-2% of VFA propionyl units. Estimates are maximum because no accounting was made for lactate derived from glycolysis in the PDV. The net splanchnic flux of VFA, lactate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, and glucose accounted for 64+/-2% of VFA acetyl units and 34+/-5% of VFA propionyl units. Results indicate that there is a low "first-pass" uptake of acetate and propionate in the ruminal epithelium of cattle, whereas butyrate and valerate are extensively metabolized, though seemingly not oxidized to carbon dioxide in the epithelium but repackaged into acetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, and perhaps other metabolites. When PDV "second-pass" uptake of arterial nutrients is accounted for, PDV fluxes of VFA, lactate, and 3-hydroxybutyrate represent VFA production in the gastrointestinal tract and thereby VFA availability to the ruminant animal. (+info)