Periodic limb movements and obstructive sleep apneas before and after continuous positive airway pressure treatment.
Periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are two common sleep disorders. The similarity in periodicity of periodic limb movements (PLMs) and obstructive sleep apneas (OSAs) led us to hypothesize the existence of a common central generator responsible for the periodicity of both OSAs and PLMs. In order to test this hypothesis, we compared apnea periodicity before continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment with PLMs periodicity during CPAP treatment in 26 OSA patients, consecutively recorded and treated in our sleep laboratory. The investigation on CPAP was performed twice, once during the initial evaluation and once during a follow-up evaluation after 3 months of home treatment with CPAP. Our results showed that, in this sample, 16 patients out of 26 had an association of OSAS and PLMS, defined as the occurrence of at least 5 PLMs per hour of sleep. The mean apnea interval - measured as the time between the beginning of two successive apneas - was 43.1 s (+/-15.2, SD) and the mean PLM interval - calculated in the same way - was 29.6 s (+/-15.2) during the baseline night, 28.5 s (+/-15.7) during the first CPAP night, and 29.8 s (+/-14.8) during the second CPAP night. Thus, the periodicity of the two phenomena (apneas and PLMs) was different, both before and after CPAP treatment (P< 0.05). When considering the interval between the end of an event (apnea or PLM) and the beginning of the next one the mean apnea interval was 19.5 s (+/-11. 6), and the mean PLM interval was 28.1 s (+/-15.3) during the untreated night, 26.6 s (+/-16) during the first CPAP night and 27.9 s (+/-15) during the second CPAP night. The shortening of apnea intervals with this method of measuring intervals reflects the longer duration of apneas as compared to PLMs. Again the intervals between PLMs were not different between each other but the intervals between apneas were different from the intervals between PLMs (P< 0. 05) These results show that the periodicity of PLMs is different from that of OSAs, suggesting that sleep apneas and PLMs are not generated by a common central generator. (+info)
Sleep/wake abnormalities in patients with periodic leg movements during sleep: factor analysis on data from 24-h ambulatory polygraphy.
Periodic Leg Movements (PLM) in sleep occur in a wide variety of sleep/wake disorders but their relationship with sleep disturbance, and notably with the concomitant existence of a 'restless legs' syndrome (RLS) remains unclear. We performed 24-h ambulatory polygraphy in a population of 54 consecutive, unselected patients with PLMs (Coleman's index greater than 5/h) who complained of different sleep disorders. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was conducted on seven variables from the sample, namely PLM index, patient's age, sleep stage changes per hour, sleep depth index (SWS+PS/TST), diurnal sleep time, number of awakenings exceeding 2 min and presence of a RLS. PCA yielded four independent factors. The PLM index and the changes of sleep stage clustered in a single factor, linking therefore sleep fragmentation to the frequency of PLMs. The second factor appeared to reflect a circadian sleep/wake disorder, combining diurnal sleep time with the number of long night awakenings. The third factor was mainly loaded by the patients' age and the sleep depth index, thus reflecting a well known relationship. Finally, the variable reflecting the existence of a RLS appeared isolated in a single factor, independent from the three previously described. These results confirm and extend the link between PLMs and sleep fragmentation, as well as the recently described dissociation between PLMs and diurnal somnolence. On the other hand, our analysis suggests that in PLM patients the concomitant existence of a RLS is not related to the frequency of occurrence of PLMs, at least when these latter are quantified independently of their arousal index. (+info)
Chronic insomnia: a practical review.
Insomnia has numerous, often concurrent etiologies, including medical conditions, medications, psychiatric disorders and poor sleep hygiene. In the elderly, insomnia is complex and often difficult to relieve because the physiologic parameters of sleep normally change with age. In most cases, however, a practical management approach is to first consider depression, medications, or both, as potential causes. Sleep apnea also should be considered in the differential assessment. Regardless of the cause of insomnia, most patients benefit from behavioral approaches that focus on good sleep habits. Exposure to bright light at appropriate times can help realign the circadian rhythm in patients whose sleep-wake cycle has shifted to undesirable times. Periodic limb movements during sleep are very common in the elderly and may merit treatment if the movements cause frequent arousals from sleep. When medication is deemed necessary for relief of insomnia, a low-dose sedating antidepressant or a nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic may offer advantages over traditional sedative-hypnotics. Longterm use of long-acting benzodiazepines should, in particular, be avoided. Melatonin may be helpful when insomnia is related to shift work and jet lag; however, its use remains controversial. (+info)
Restless legs syndrome: detection and management in primary care. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group on Restless Legs Syndrome.
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurologic movement disorder that is often associated with a sleep complaint. Patients with RLS have an irresistible urge to move their legs, which is usually due to disagreeable sensations that are worse during periods of inactivity and often interfere with sleep. It is estimated that between 2 and 15 percent of the population may experience symptoms of RLS. Primary RLS likely has a genetic origin. Secondary causes of RLS include iron deficiency, neurologic lesions, pregnancy and uremia. RLS also may occur secondarily to the use of certain medications. The diagnosis of RLS is based primarily on the patient's history. A list of questions that may be used as a basis to assess the likelihood of RLS is included in this article. Pharmacologic treatment of RLS includes dopaminergic agents, opioids, benzodiazepines and anticonvulsants. The primary care physician plays a central role in the diagnosis and management of RLS. (+info)
Restless legs syndrome.
BACKGROUND: Restless legs syndrome is a common but not well-recognized central nervous system disorder that leads to insomnia and daytime distress. METHODS: A MEDLINE search of the recent English language literature was undertaken with review of appropriate articles and references. RESULTS: A growing body of work has added to an understanding of the epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, appropriate evaluation, and effective management of restless legs syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Restless legs syndrome occurs in about 6% of the adult population, more so in the elderly. Affected patients experience uncomfortable sensations in the legs with inactivity, more pronounced late in the day and at bedtime, which are temporarily relieved by moving the limbs. Affected patients can suffer from insomnia, disrupted sleep, daytime fatigue, and difficulty with sedentary activities. Most cases are idiopathic, although secondary causes, such as iron deficiency, should be excluded. Dopaminergic agents are highly effective in treating restless legs syndrome, but side effects can be problematic. Alternative medications include benzodiazepines, opioids, gabapentin, and clonidine. (+info)
Identification of a major susceptibility locus for restless legs syndrome on chromosome 12q.
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder characterized by leg paresthesia associated with an irresistible urge to move that often interferes with nocturnal sleep, leading to chronic sleep deprivation. To map genes that may play a role in the vulnerability to RLS, a genomewide scan was conducted in a large French-Canadian family. Significant linkage was established on chromosome 12q, for a series of adjacent microsatellite markers with a maximum two-point LOD score of 3.42 (recombination fraction.05; P=6x10(-4); autosomal recessive mode of inheritance), whereas multipoint linkage calculations yielded a LOD score of 3.59. Haplotype analysis refined the genetic interval, positioning the RLS-predisposing gene in a 14.71-cM region between D12S1044 and D12S78. These findings represent the first mapping of a locus conferring susceptibility to RLS. (+info)
Insomnia in maintenance haemodialysis patients.
BACKGROUND: Studies in the last 15 years have shown a high prevalence of sleep disorders in maintenance haemodialysis (HD) patients. METHODS: To investigate whether the new technical and therapeutic advances of the last decade have had a positive impact on sleep disturbances in HD patients: 694 patients (384 males, 310 females) were surveyed using a specific questionnaire; their clinical, lifestyle and dialysis data were also recorded. RESULTS: Forty-five per cent of patients (n=311; 156 males, 155 females) complained of insomnia, defined either by delayed sleep onset and/or night-time waking, and were included in the insomnia group; the remainder were used as controls (control group). There was a significantly higher risk of insomnia in patients with >12 months on dialysis, in patients dialysed in the morning (P<0.003), and in patients with higher parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels (P<0.05). Body mass index, body weight gain and blood pressure did not differ between the groups, and neither did the dialysis parameters. Creatinine and urea plasma levels were higher in the control group vs the insomnia group (P<0.001), but there was no difference in haemoglobin concentrations or use of erythropoietin, calcitriol and antihypertensive drugs. Cigarette smoking, caffeine or alcohol intake were comparable in the two groups. The most frequently recorded sleep disorders were night-time waking (92%), trouble falling asleep (67%) and early morning waking (62%). Restless leg symptoms were described in 52% of patients with insomnia. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of insomnia in HD patients is still very high; elderly patients, and those with longer time on dialysis and high levels of PTH are at major risk of insomnia, whereas type of dialysis, haemoglobin levels and behavioural factors do not seem to play a critical role in determining this sleep disorder. (+info)
Autosomal dominant restless legs syndrome maps on chromosome 14q.
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder characterized by an irresistible desire to move the extremities associated with paraesthesia/dysaesthesia. These symptoms occur predominantly at rest and worsen at night, resulting in nocturnal insomnia and chronic sleep deprivation. In this paper, we show significant evidence of linkage to a new locus for RLS on chromosome 14q13-21 region in a 30-member, three-generation Italian family affected by RLS and periodic leg movements in sleep (PLMS). This is the second RLS locus identified so far and the first consistent with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. The new RLS critical region spans 9.1 cM, between markers D14S70 and D14S1068. The maximum two-point log of odds ratio score value, of 3.23 at theta = 0.0, was obtained for marker D14S288. The accurate clinical evaluation of RLS-affected, as well as unaffected, family members allowed for the configuring of RLS as a phenotypic spectrum ranging from PLMS to RLS. Motor component, both while awake and during sleep, was an important aspect of the phenotype in the family analysed. The complementary clinical and genetic studies on multiplex families are likely to be of the utmost importance in unfolding the complete expressivity of RLS phenotype spectrum. (+info)