High-temperature effects on antibody response to viral antigen in mice.
To determine the effects of high-temperature exposure on antibody response to viral antigen in mice, male BALB/c mice were placed for 13 days in animal chambers at 23 degrees C, 32 degrees C, and 35.5 degrees C. Rectal temperature rose from 37 degrees C to 39 degrees C on day 1 in a 35.5 degrees C environment. The rectal temperature was kept constant throughout the exposure period. The IgG-antibody to Sendai virus (SV) antigen was inhibited to about 50% of the control value (23 degrees C). The serum corticosterone concentration indicating thermal stress increased steadily, peaking on day 1 and then gradually decreased and recovered to the normal level on day 13. Body weight decreased to about 72% of the controls on day 13. Thymus and spleen weight decreased to 31.7% and 61.5% respectively. At 32 degrees C, these effects were less than at 35.5 degrees C. Effects of high-temperature exposure at 35.5 degrees C appeared to noticeably decrease thymus and spleen weight. It is clear that IgG-antibody response to SV antigen is suppressed by high-temperature exposure. (+info)
IkappaB-mediated inhibition of virus-induced beta interferon transcription.
We have examined the consequences of overexpression of the IkappaBalpha and IkappaBbeta inhibitory proteins on the regulation of NF-kappaB-dependent beta interferon (IFN-beta) gene transcription in human cells after Sendai virus infection. In transient coexpression studies or in cell lines engineered to express different forms of IkappaB under tetracycline-inducible control, the IFN-beta promoter (-281 to +19) linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene was differentially inhibited in response to virus infection. IkappaBalpha exhibited a strong inhibitory effect on virus-induced IFN-beta expression, whereas IkappaBbeta exerted an inhibitory effect only at a high concentration. Despite activation of the IkappaB kinase complex by Sendai virus infection, overexpression of the double-point-mutated (S32A/S36A) dominant repressors of IkappaBalpha (TD-IkappaBalpha) completely blocked IFN-beta gene activation by Sendai virus. Endogenous IFN-beta RNA production was also inhibited in Tet-inducible TD-IkappaBalpha-expressing cells. Inhibition of IFN-beta expression directly correlated with a reduction in the binding of NF-kappaB (p50-RelA) complex to PRDII after Sendai virus infection in IkappaBalpha-expressing cells, whereas IFN-beta expression and NF-kappaB binding were only slightly reduced in IkappaBbeta-expressing cells. These experiments demonstrate a major role for IkappaBalpha in the regulation of NF-kappaB-induced IFN-beta gene activation and a minor role for IkappaBbeta in the activation process. (+info)
Sendai virus and simian virus 5 block activation of interferon-responsive genes: importance for virus pathogenesis.
Sendai virus (SeV) is highly pathogenic for mice. In contrast, mice (including SCID mice) infected with simian virus 5 (SV5) showed no overt signs of disease. Evidence is presented that a major factor which prevented SV5 from productively infecting mice was its inability to circumvent the interferon (IFN) response in mice. Thus, in murine cells that produce and respond to IFN, SV5 protein synthesis was rapidly switched off. In marked contrast, once SeV protein synthesis began, it continued, even if the culture medium was supplemented with alpha/beta IFN (IFN-alpha/beta). However, in human cells, IFN-alpha/beta did not inhibit the replication of either SV5 or SeV once virus protein synthesis was established. To begin to address the molecular basis for these observations, the effects of SeV and SV5 infections on the activation of an IFN-alpha/beta-responsive promoter and on that of the IFN-beta promoter were examined in transient transfection experiments. The results demonstrated that (i) SeV, but not SV5, inhibited an IFN-alpha/beta-responsive promoter in murine cells; (ii) both SV5 and SeV inhibited the activation of an IFN-alpha/beta-responsive promoter in human cells; and (iii) in both human and murine cells, SeV was a strong inducer of the IFN-beta promoter, whereas SV5 was a poor inducer. The ability of SeV and SV5 to inhibit the activation of IFN-responsive genes in human cells was confirmed by RNase protection experiments. The importance of these results in terms of paramyxovirus pathogenesis is discussed. (+info)
Structural and functional analysis of interferon regulatory factor 3: localization of the transactivation and autoinhibitory domains.
The interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) gene encodes a 55-kDa protein which is expressed constitutively in all tissues. In unstimulated cells, IRF-3 is present in an inactive cytoplasmic form; following Sendai virus infection, IRF-3 is posttranslationally modified by protein phosphorylation at multiple serine and threonine residues located in the carboxy terminus. Virus-induced phosphorylation of IRF-3 leads to cytoplasmic to nuclear translocation of phosphorylated IRF-3, association with the transcriptional coactivator CBP/p300, and stimulation of DNA binding and transcriptional activities of virus-inducible genes. Using yeast and mammalian one-hybrid analysis, we now demonstrate that an extended, atypical transactivation domain is located in the C terminus of IRF-3 between amino acids (aa) 134 and 394. We also show that the C-terminal domain of IRF-3 located between aa 380 and 427 participates in the autoinhibition of IRF-3 activity via an intramolecular association with the N-terminal region between aa 98 and 240. After Sendai virus infection, an intermolecular association between IRF-3 proteins is detected, demonstrating a virus-dependent formation of IRF-3 homodimers; this interaction is also observed in the absence of virus infection with a constitutively activated form of IRF-3. Substitution of the C-terminal Ser-Thr phosphorylation sites with the phosphomimetic Asp in the region ISNSHPLSLTSDQ between amino acids 395 and 407 [IRF-3(5D)], but not the adjacent S385 and S386 residues, generates a constitutively activated DNA binding form of IRF-3. In contrast, substitution of S385 and S386 with either Ala or Asp inhibits both DNA binding and transactivation activities of the IRF-3(5D) protein. These studies thus define the transactivation domain of IRF-3, two domains that participate in the autoinhibition of IRF-3 activity, and the regulatory phosphorylation sites controlling IRF-3 dimer formation, DNA binding activity, and association with the CBP/p300 coactivator. (+info)
Enumeration of antigen-presenting cells in mice infected with Sendai virus.
Substantial progress has been made in understanding Ag presentation to T cells; however, relatively little is known about the location and frequency of cells presenting viral Ags during a viral infection. Here, we took advantage of a highly sensitive system using lacZ-inducible T cell hybridomas to enumerate APCs during the course of respiratory Sendai virus infection in mice. Using lacZ-inducible T cell hybridomas specific for the immunodominant hemagglutinin-neuraminidase HN421-436/I-Ab and nucleoprotein NP324-332/Kb epitopes, we detected APCs in draining mediastinal lymph nodes (MLNs), in cervical lymph nodes, and also in the spleen. HN421-436/I-Ab- and NP324-332/Kb-presenting cells were readily detectable between days 3 and 9 postinfection, with more APCs present in the MLN than in the cervical lymph nodes. Interestingly, no infectious virus was detected in lymphoid tissue beyond day 6, suggesting that a depot of noninfectious viral Ag survives, in some form, for 2-3 days after viral clearance. Fractionation of the MLN demonstrated that APC frequency was enriched in dendritic cells and macrophages but depleted in the B cell population, suggesting that B cells do not form a large population of APCs during the primary response to this virus. (+info)
Isotype- and subclass-specific responses to infection and reinfection with parainfluenza-3 virus: comparison of the diagnostic potential of ELISAs detecting seroconversion and specific IgM and IgA.
Isotype- and subclass-specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were developed to detect parainfluenza-3 virus-specific IgG1, IgG2, IgM, and IgA responses. Sera were treated with protein G-agarose prior to testing for specific IgM and IgA to eliminate the possibility of false-positive results due to IgM-rheumatoid factor and to remove interisotypic competition due to specific IgG. IgM and IgA absorbance values were expressed as a percentage of the absorbance values of positive reference sera included on each plate (S/P%), and respective positive/negative threshold values of 15.0% and 28.0% were determined. The mean interval between experimental infection of 3 calves and initial detection of specific IgG1 and IgG2 responses was 8.0 and 9.3 days respectively, rising rapidly to an initial plateau 13.7 and 11.0 days postinfection (dpi). Reinfection of these calves at 30 dpi resulted in further rapid increases, with higher plateau values reached 13.0 (IgG1) and 13.7 (IgG2) days later. The mean interval between infection and the first positive IgM and IgA responses was 6.7 and 12.3 days, respectively. IgM S/P% values peaked at 13.0 dpi, with all 3 calves showing a secondary anamnestic response to reinfection, peaking 4.7 days later. The IgA response to initial infection was weak, with only 2 calves showing an obvious peak response at 15.0 dpi. A strong anamnestic IgA response to reinfection occurred in 2 calves, with a peak response 9.5 days later. Apparent biphasic and triphasic IgM and IgA responses were evident in some calves. Acute and convalescent serum samples from 80 calves involved in 17 outbreaks of respiratory disease were tested for specific IgM and IgA. Positive IgM results were detected in 15 outbreaks, with 71 sera from 44 calves testing positive. Although IgA-positive results were detected in the same 15 outbreaks, only 42 sera from 31 calves were positive. In a previous study, seroconversion was detected in 21 of these calves from 10 outbreaks. Thus the diagnostic potential of the assays was in the order IgM > IgA > seroconversion. The correlations between IgM and IgA, IgM and seroconversion, and IgA and seroconversion results for each calf were 73.8%, 58.8% and 62.5%, respectively. (+info)
Highly diverse intergenic regions of the paramyxovirus simian virus 5 cooperate with the gene end U tract in viral transcription termination and can influence reinitiation at a downstream gene.
A dicistronic minigenome containing the M-F gene junction was used to determine the role of the simian virus 5 (SV5) intergenic regions in transcription. The M-F junction differs from the other SV5 junctions by having a short M gene end U tract of only four residues (U4 tract) and a 22-base M-F intergenic sequence between the M gene end and F gene start site. Replacing the 22-base M-F intergenic region with nonviral sequences resulted in a minigenome template (Rep 22) that was defective in termination at the end of the M gene. Efficient M gene termination could be restored to the mutant Rep 22 template in either of two ways: by increasing the U tract length from four to six residues or by restoring a G residue immediately downstream of the wild-type (WT) U4 tract. In a dicistronic SH-HN minigenome, a U4-G combination was functionally equivalent to the naturally occurring SH U6-A gene end in directing SH transcription termination. In addition to affecting termination, the M-F intergenic region also influenced polymerase reinitiation. In the context of the WT U4-G M gene end, substituting nonviral sequences into the M-F intergenic region had a differential effect on F gene reinitiation, where some but not all nonviral sequences inhibited reinitiation. The inhibition of F gene reinitiation correlated with foreign sequences having a high C content. Deleting 6 bases or inserting 18 additional nucleotides into the middle of the 22-base M-F intergenic segment did not influence M gene termination or F gene reinitiation, indicating that M-F intergenic length per se is not a important factor modulating the SV5 polymerase activity. Our results suggest that the sequence diversity at an SV5 gene junction reflects specific combinations which may differentially affect SV5 gene expression and provide an additional level of transcriptional control beyond that which results from the distance of a gene from the 3' end promoter. (+info)
Structural basis for paramyxovirus-mediated membrane fusion.
Paramyxoviruses are responsible for significant human mortality and disease worldwide, but the molecular mechanisms underlying their entry into host cells remain poorly understood. We have solved the crystal structure of a fragment of the simian parainfluenza virus 5 fusion protein (SV5 F), revealing a 96 A long coiled coil surrounded by three antiparallel helices. This structure places the fusion and transmembrane anchor of SV5 F in close proximity with a large intervening domain at the opposite end of the coiled coil. Six amino acids, potentially part of the fusion peptide, form a segment of the central coiled coil, suggesting that this structure extends into the membrane. Deletion mutants of SV5 F indicate that putative flexible tethers between the coiled coil and the viral membrane are dispensable for fusion. The lack of flexible tethers may couple a final conformational change in the F protein directly to the fusion of two bilayers. (+info)