Randomized trial of zileuton in patients with moderate asthma: effect of reduced dosing frequency and amounts on pulmonary function and asthma symptoms. Zileuton Study Group.
This 6-month, randomized, multicenter study was designed to determine whether patients who had been treated with the leukotriene pathway inhibitor zileuton 600 mg four times daily (QID) for 2 months could be maintained at the same level of pulmonary function, symptom control, and beta-agonist use with less frequent dosing--first 600 or 800 mg three times daily (TID) and then twice daily (BID). A total of 278 patients with chronic asthma, ages 16 to 70, participated at 25 US centers. All had a 1-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1) of 35%-75%, reversible airway disease, and a nonsmoking history of 1 year. An 8-week open-label period (zileuton 600 mg QID) was followed by a 16-week double-blind period, in which patients who responded to the QID treatment were randomized to receive zileuton 600 or 800 mg TID for 8 weeks and then rerandomized to receive zileuton 600 or 800 mg BID for another 8 weeks. Primary outcomes were FEV1 and asthma symptom scores; secondary outcomes were peak expiratory flow rate, beta-agonist use, and asthma exacerbations requiring steroid rescue. Patients who showed improvements in lung function when treated with zileuton 600 mg QID demonstrated minimal decreases in FEV1 and comparable peak expiratory flow rates, symptom control, beta-agonist use, and systemic corticosteroid rescue when being treated with lower doses and/or less frequent doses of zileuton. Patients who demonstrate improved asthma control with zileuton 600 mg QID may be able to reduce their daily dosage and/or frequency while still maintaining the same level of symptom control. (+info)
Inhaled NO and almitrine bismesylate in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: effect of noradrenalin.
The combination of inhaled nitric oxide with almitrine bismesylate has been proposed for the management of acute respiratory distress syndrome in order to divert pulmonary blood flow away from poorly ventilated toward well-ventilated areas. The aims of this prospective and comparative study were to: 1) confirm the beneficial effects on oxygenation of this association; 2) evaluate the haemodynamic effects of this association; and 3) evaluate the influence of noradrenaline (a nonspecific vasoconstrictor) on the modification of gas exchange related to inhaled NO and/or almitrine bismesylate. Forty-one sedated paralysed and ventilated patients were investigated. Haemodynamic and blood gas measurements were performed in a fixed order: baseline; inhalation of NO for 30 min.; intravenous infusion of almitrine bismesylate; and concomitant administration of inhaled NO and almitrine bismesylate. Inhaled NO and almitrine bismesylate increased arterial oxygen tension (Pa,O2)/inspiratory oxygen fraction (FI,O2) (p<0.001). The association of inhaled NO with almitrine bismesylate resulted in a dramatic improvement in Pa,O2/FI,O2 (p<0.0001 versus almitrine bismesylate, p<0.05 versus inhaled NO). In patients receiving noradrenalin (n = 19), almitrine bismesylate had no effect on oxygenation. The present study confirmed that the combination of inhaled NO with almitrine bismesylate improved oxygenation, and demonstrated that almitrine bismesylate has no effect on oxygenation in patients receiving noradrenalin. (+info)
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in infants: good prognosis with conservative management.
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary interstitial fibrosis in children is a disease of unknown aetiology, usually associated with a poor prognosis. METHODS: In this case series we describe 11 children presenting over a 10 year period, managed conservatively and associated with a good prognosis. RESULTS: In six, symptoms were present from birth and 10 had symptoms at or before 3 months. Diagnosis was made using chest computed tomography and percutaneous lung biopsy. All patients were treated with oral prednisolone. In five no steroid response was noted. One patient responded to hydroxychloroquine. Home oxygen was required in five patients. At follow up all patients are alive at a median age of 6 years (range 1 to 12 years). The two recently diagnosed children have significant symptoms, seven have dyspnoea on exercise, and two are symptom free. CONCLUSION: The good prognosis seen in these patients is different to previous case reports, indicating a greater than 50% mortality. (+info)
Effect of inhaled prostacyclin in combination with almitrine on ventilation-perfusion distributions in experimental lung injury.
BACKGROUND: Inhaled prostacyclin and intravenous almitrine have both been shown to improve pulmonary gas exchange in acute lung injury (ALI). This study was performed to investigate a possible additive effect of prostacyclin and almitrine on pulmonary ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) ratio in ALI compared with inhaled prostacyclin or intravenous almitrine alone. METHODS: Experimental ALI was established in 24 pigs by repeated lung lavage. Animals were randomly assigned to receive either 25 ng.kg(-1).min(-1) inhaled prostacyclin alone, 1 microg.kg(-1).min(-1) almitrine alone, 25 ng.kg(-1).min(-1) inhaled prostacyclin in combination with 1 microg.kg(-1).min(-1) almitrine, or no specific treatment (controls) for 30 min. For each intervention, pulmonary gas exchange and hemodynamics were analyzed and VA/Q distributions were calculated using the multiple inert gas elimination technique. The data was analyzed within and between the groups by analysis of variance for repeated measurements, followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test for multiple comparison when analysis of variance revealed significant differences. RESULTS: All values are expressed as mean +/- SD. In controls, pulmonary gas exchange, hemodynamics, and VA/Q distribution remained unchanged. With prostacyclin alone and almitrine alone, arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) increased, whereas intrapulmonary shunt (QS/QT) decreased (P < 0.05). Combined prostacyclin and almitrine also increased PaO2 and decreased QS/QT (P < 0.05). When compared with either prostacyclin or almitrine alone, the combined application of both drugs revealed no additional effect in gas exchange or VA/Q distribution. CONCLUSIONS: The authors conclude that, in this experimental model of ALI, the combination of 25 ng.kg(-1).min(-1) prostacyclin and 1 microg.kg(-1).min(-1) almitrine does not result in an additive improvement of pulmonary gas exchange or VA/Q distribution when compared with prostacyclin or almitrine alone. (+info)
Ultrasound measurements of fetal breathing movements in the rat.
The goal of this study was to determine when fetal breathing movements (FBMs) commence in the rat and to characterize age-dependent changes of FBMs in utero. These data provide a frame of reference for parallel in vitro studies of the cellular, synaptic, and network properties of the perinatal rat respiratory system. Ultrasound recordings were made from unanesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats from embryonic (E) day 15 (E15) to E20. Furthermore, the effects of respiratory stimulants (doxapram and aminophylline) and hypoxia on FBMs were studied. Single FBMs, occurring at a very low frequency (approximately 8 FBMs/h), commenced at E16. The incidence of single FBMs increased to approximately 80 FBMs/h by E20. Episodes of clustered rhythmic FBMs were first observed at E18 (approximately 40 FBMs/h). The incidence of episodic clustered FBMs increased to approximately 300 FMBs/h by E20, with the duration of each episode ranging from approximately 40 to 180 s. Doxapram, presumably acting to stimulate carotid body receptors, did not increase FBMs until E20, when the incidence of episodic clustered FBMs increased twofold. Aminophylline, a central-acting stimulant, caused an increase in episodic clustered FBMs after E17, reaching significance at E20 (3-fold increase). Exposing the dam to 10% O(2) caused a rapid, marked suppression of FBMs (5-fold decrease) that was readily reversed on exposure to room air. (+info)
Association of oral almitrine and medroxyprogesterone acetate: effect on arterial blood gases in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Almitrine (A) and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MA) given separately improve arterial blood gases in some patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); the aim of this study was to assess the effect of the two drugs given together. Forty-eight patients with irreversible COPD and hypoxaemia were prospectively enrolled into a 14-day run-in period and received single-blind oral treatment with double placebo. Patients whose PaO2 remained stable (less than 10% change; n = 29, 25 males, mean age 65.6 years) were included in a 14-day active treatment period and randomly assigned to three groups. They received double-blind oral treatment with: A (50 mg bid, group A, n = 10); MA (20 mg tid, group MA, n = 9); A (50 mg bid) and MA (20 mg tid, group A+MA, n = 10). Anthropometric and spirometric measurements were similar in the three groups and so were the arterial blood gas values at the beginning and the end of the run-in period. At the end of the active treatment period, blood gas changes (mean+/-SE) were significantly different between groups (P<0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test), with improvement in both hypoxaemia and hypercapnia in group A+MA only: delta PaO2 = 7.4+/-1.9 mmHg, delta PaCO2 = -5.1+/-1.7 m mHg (P<0.05, Wilcoxon test). In short-term treatment, the association of A and MA is more efficient than either drug alone at improving arterial blood gases in COPD patients. (+info)
Changes in respiratory sensations induced by lobeline after human bilateral lung transplantation.
1. The sensations evoked by the injection of lobeline into the right antecubital vein were studied in 8 subjects after bilateral lung transplantation and 10 control subjects. In control subjects, two distinct sensations were experienced. There was an early noxious sensation (onset approximately 10 s) followed by a late sensation of breathlessness (onset approximately 26 s) associated with involuntary hyperventilation. The early sensation was accompanied by respiratory and cardiovascular changes. 2. In contrast to control subjects, the early respiratory events and the noxious sensations evoked by injections of lobeline (18-60 microg kg(-1)) did not occur in subjects with recent bilateral lung transplantation. This suggests that the early respiratory sensations are mediated by the discharge of receptors in the lungs. 3. The late hyperventilation and the accompanying sensation of breathlessness occurred in both transplant and control subjects and are therefore likely to be mediated by receptors elsewhere in the body, presumably systemic arterial chemoreceptors stimulated by lobeline. 4. In control subjects, but not transplant subjects, there was a consistent decrease in mean arterial pressure associated with the lobeline injection. This suggests that pulmonary afferents mediate the hypotension. 5. For transplant subjects studied more than a year after transplantation, there was some evidence that the noxious respiratory sensations evoked by lobeline had returned. This suggests that some functional reinnervation of pulmonary afferents may occur. (+info)
Flowmetric comparison of respiratory inductance plethysmography and pneumotachography in horses.
Respiratory inductance plethysmographic (RIP) and pneumotachographic (Pn) flows were compared dynamically in horses with bronchoconstriction. On a breath-by-breath basis, RIP was normalized to inspiratory volume from Pn, and peak [peak of subtracted final exhalation waveform (SFE(max))] and selected area [integral of subtracted final waveform during first 25% of exhaled volume (SFE(int))] differences between RIP and Pn flows during early expiration were measured in three settings: 1) healthy horses (n = 8) undergoing histamine bronchoprovocation; 2) horses with naturally occurring lower airway obstruction (AO) (n = 7); and 3) healthy horses (n = 6) given lobeline. HCl to induce hyperpnea. In setting 1, histamine challenge induced a dose-dependent increase in SFE(max) and SFE(int) differences. A test index of airway reactivity (interpolated histamine dose that increased SFE(max) by 35%) closely correlated (r(s) = 0.93, P = 0.001) with a conventional index (histamine dose that induced a 35% decrease in dynamic compliance). In setting 2, in horses with AO, SFE(max) and SFE(int) were markedly elevated, and their absolute values correlated significantly (P < 0.005) with pulmonary resistance and the maximum change in transpulmonary pressure. The effects of bronchodilator treatment on the SFE(max) and SFE(int) were also highly significant (P < 0.0001). In setting 3, hyperpnea, but not tachypnea, caused significant (P < 0.01) increases in SFE(max) but not in SFE(int). In conclusion, dynamic comparisons between RIP and Pn provide a defensible method for quantifying AO during tidal breathing, without the need for invasive instrumentation. (+info)