Interferon gamma expressed by a recombinant respiratory syncytial virus attenuates virus replication in mice without compromising immunogenicity.
Interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) has pleiotropic biological effects, including intrinsic antiviral activity as well as stimulation and regulation of immune responses. An infectious recombinant human respiratory syncytial virus (rRSV/mIFN-gamma) was constructed that encodes murine (m) IFN-gamma as a separate gene inserted into the G-F intergenic region. Cultured cells infected with rRSV/mIFN-gamma secreted 22 microg mIFN-gamma per 10(6) cells. The replication of rRSV/mIFN-gamma, but not that of a control chimeric rRSV containing the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene as an additional gene, was 63- and 20-fold lower than that of wild-type (wt) RSV in the upper and lower respiratory tract, respectively, of mice. Thus, the attenuation of rRSV/mIFN-gamma in vivo could be attributed to the activity of mIFN-gamma and not to the presence of the additional gene per se. The mice were completely resistant to subsequent challenge with wt RSV. Despite its growth restriction, infection of mice with rRSV/mIFN-gamma induced a level of RSV-specific antibodies that, on day 56, was comparable to or greater than that induced by infection with wt RSV. Mice infected with rRSV/mIFN-gamma developed a high level of IFN-gamma mRNA and an increased amount of interleukin 12 p40 mRNA in their lungs, whereas other cytokine mRNAs tested were unchanged compared with those induced by wt RSV. Because attenuation of RSV typically is accompanied by a reduction in immunogenicity, expression of IFN-gamma by an rRSV represents a method of attenuation in which immunogenicity can be maintained rather than be reduced. (+info)
Two neutralizing human anti-RSV antibodies: cloning, expression, and characterization.
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a major problem in the newborn and aging populations. Fully human monoclonal antibodies with the ability to neutralize RSV could have a major impact on the immunotherapy of the disease. The generation of human antibodies has been difficult because there exists no general way to activate B cells against an antigen of choice in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human spleen cells from individuals exposed to RSV were used to repopulate SCID mice. Hu-SCID mice were boosted with RSV fusion (F)-protein and subsequently developed B cell tumors. The tumors were removed and cultured and subcloned in vitro, using a feeder layer of CD154-expressing T cells. Two of these tumors produced the antibodies designated RF-1 and RF-2. VL genes were isolated by standard PCR techniques, however, it was necessary to use high-temperature reverse transcriptase to clone the VH genes. RESULTS: RF-1 and RF-2 VH genes were both found to be closely related members of the VH2 family. Vk genes originated from the VK III family. RF-1 and RF-2 recombinant antibodies expressed in CHO cells (cRF-1 and cRF-2) were found to have affinities for RSV F-protein of 0.1 nM and 0.07 nM, respectively, and both were able to neutralize several A and B subtypes of RSV. CONCLUSION: The technique of immortalizing human B lymphocytes, by passage in SCID mice and expression as recombinant antibodies in CHO cells, provides a method by which high-affinity human antibodies can be developed for immunotherapy of viral diseases. (+info)
IL-5 and eosinophils are essential for the development of airway hyperresponsiveness following acute respiratory syncytial virus infection.
Viral respiratory infections can cause bronchial hyperresponsiveness and exacerbate asthma. In mice, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, which induces an immune response dominated by IFN-gamma, results in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and eosinophil influx into the airways, both of which are prevented by pretreatment with anti-IL-5 Ab. To delineate the role of IL-5, IL-4, and IFN-gamma in the development of RSV-induced AHR and lung eosinophilia, we tested the ability of mice deficient in each of these cytokines to develop these symptoms of RSV infection. Mice deficient in either IL-5, IL-4, or IFN-gamma were administered infectious RSV intranasally, and 6 days later, airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine was assessed by barometric body plethysmography, and numbers of lung eosinophils and production of IFN-gamma, IL-4, and IL-5 by mononuclear cells from peribronchial lymph nodes were monitored. RSV infection resulted in airway eosinophilia and AHR in both IL-4- and IFN-gamma-deficient mice, but not in IL-5-deficient mice. Reconstitution of IL-5-deficient mice with IL-5 restored these responses and enhanced the responses in IL-4-deficient mice. Anti-VLA-4 (very late Ag-4) treatment prevented lung eosinophilia and AHR following RSV infection and IL-5 reconstitution. We conclude that in response to RSV, IL-5 is essential for the influx of eosinophils into the lung and that eosinophils in turn are critical for the development of AHR. IFN-gamma and IL-4 are not essential for these responses to RSV infection. (+info)
Human antibody responses to mature and immature forms of viral envelope in respiratory syncytial virus infection: significance for subunit vaccines.
A number of antibodies generated during human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection have been cloned by the phage library approach. Antibodies reactive with an immunodominant epitope on the F glycoprotein of this virus have a high affinity for affinity-purified F antigen. These antibodies, however, have a much lower affinity for mature F glycoprotein on the surface of infected cells and are nonneutralizing. In contrast, a potent neutralizing antibody has a high affinity for mature F protein but a much lower affinity for purified F protein or F protein in viral lysates. The data indicate that at least two F protein immunogens are produced during natural RSV infection: immature F, found in viral lysates, and mature F, found on infected cells or virions. Binding studies with polyclonal human immunoglobulin G suggest that the antibody responses to the two immunogens are of similar magnitudes. Competitive binding studies suggest that overlap between the responses is relatively limited. A mature envelope with an antigenic configuration different from that of the immature envelope has an evolutionary advantage in that the infecting virus is less subject to neutralization by the humoral response to the immature envelope that inevitably arises following lysis of infected cells. Subunit vaccines may be at a disadvantage because they most often resemble immature envelope molecules and ignore this aspect of viral evasion. (+info)
Recombinant respiratory syncytial virus bearing a deletion of either the NS2 or SH gene is attenuated in chimpanzees.
The NS2 and SH genes of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) have been separately deleted from a recombinant wild-type RSV strain, A2 (M. N. Teng and P. L. Collins, J. Virol. 73:466-473, 1998; A. Bukreyev et al., J. Virol. 71:8973-8982, 1997; and this study). The resulting viruses, designated rA2DeltaNS2 and rA2DeltaSH, were administered to chimpanzees to evaluate their levels of attenuation and immunogenicity. Recombinant virus rA2DeltaNS2 replicated to moderate levels in the upper respiratory tract, was highly attenuated in the lower respiratory tract, and induced significant resistance to challenge with wild-type RSV. The replication of rA2DeltaSH virus was only moderately reduced in the lower, but not the upper, respiratory tract. However, chimpanzees infected with either virus developed significantly less rhinorrhea than those infected with wild-type RSV. These findings demonstrate that a recombinant RSV mutant lacking either the NS2 or SH gene is attenuated and indicate that these deletions may be useful as attenuating mutations in new, live recombinant RSV vaccine candidates for both pediatric and elderly populations. The DeltaSH mutation was incorporated into a recombinant form of the cpts248/404 vaccine candidate, was evaluated for safety in seronegative chimpanzees, and can now be evaluated as a vaccine for humans. (+info)
Molecular epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus in The Gambia.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in The Gambia occurs seasonally in association with the rainy season. This study examined the genetic variability of RSV isolates from four consecutive epidemics from 1993-6. Each epidemic was made up of a number of variants which were replaced in subsequent epidemics. Analysis of attachment (G) protein gene sequences showed that isolates were closely related to those observed in the rest of the world. However, many isolates from 1993 and 1994 were unlike other isolates observed in the developed world during this period and were more similar to isolates from 1984 in Europe. In addition, the most commonly observed genotype in the UK in the 1990s was not detected in The Gambia during this period. (+info)
Efficacy of RD3-0028 aerosol treatment against respiratory syncytial virus infection in immunosuppressed mice.
RD3-0028, a benzodithiin compound, has antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in cell culture. We used a mouse model of RSV infection to determine the in vivo effect of RD3-0028. Cyclophosphamide (CYP)-treated, immunosuppressed mice were inoculated intranasally. The lungs of the mice were removed on day 4. The virus titers of the lungs of RD3-0028-treated mice were compared to the virus titers of the lungs of virus-inoculated, untreated control mice. In an effort to increase the therapeutic effectiveness of this compound, RD3-0028 was administered by aerosol to RSV-infected mice by using a head-exposure system. Aerosols generated from reservoirs containing RD3-0028 (7 mg/ml) administered for 2 h twice daily for 3 days significantly reduced the pulmonary titer of RSV-infected mice. It is clear that the minimal effective dose of RD3-0028 for RSV-infected mice is significantly less than that of ribavirin, the only compound currently available for use against RSV disease. Furthermore, the RD3-0028 aerosol administration appeared to protect the lungs of infected, CYP-treated mice against tissue damage, as evidenced by the preservation of the lung architecture and a reduction in pulmonary inflammatory infiltrates. RD3-0028 aerosol was not toxic for mice at the therapeutic dose. The present study demonstrates the effectiveness of aerosol administration of RD3-0028 for RSV-infected mice. (+info)
A simple and reproducible method for collecting nasal secretions in frail elderly adults, for measurement of virus-specific IgA.
The standard method for collection of respiratory secretions, by use of a nasal wash (NW) to measure virus-specific IgA, is problematic in frail elderly adults. Therefore, a simplified collection approach using a nasal swab (NS) is described. NW and NS samples were collected from healthy young and frail elderly adults, and IgA titers to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion and attachment glycoproteins were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Correlation between IgA titers in NW and NS was excellent for each of the antigens (correlation coefficients,.71-.93). In addition, NS results were reproducible when frail elderly subjects were sampled several weeks apart and were nearly equivalent to results from NW samples. The ability to sample nasal secretions by use of an NS when an NW is not technically feasible will facilitate the study of mucosal immunity to RSV as well as the study of mucosal response to candidate RSV vaccines in frail elderly populations. (+info)