Sepsis induces early phrenic nerve neuropathy in rats.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the electrophysiology of the phrenic nerve and the diaphragm muscle during sepsis. In total, 26 rats underwent either sham laparotomy or caecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Electrophysiology was evaluated via a phrenic nerve conduction study and needle electromyography of the diaphragm, prior to CLP, 6 and 24 h post-CLP and on day 7. The histopathology of the diaphragm muscle and phrenic nerve was also examined on day 7. In the sepsis group, the phrenic nerve conduction study showed decreased amplitude of compound action potential (CMAP), and prolongation in the duration and the latency of CMAP. The diaphragmatic needle electromyography showed decreased amplitude and frequency of the motor unit action potential (MUP), and prolongation in the duration of MUP, at all time points, compared with the pre-CLP values. The electrophysiological abnormalities were consistent with axonal and demyelinating phrenic nerve neuropathy. Electrophysiological abnormalities were present at 6 h with worsening at 24 h and on day 7. Histopathological examination showed normal muscular fibres and focally slight myelin degenerations of the phrenic nerve fibres. In conclusion, sepsis induced phrenic nerve neuropathy as early as the 6th h in rats. (+info)
Right hemi-diaphragm paralysis following cardiac radiofrequency ablation.
Diaphragm paralysis may occur after traumatic phrenic nerve injury. Here we report three patients in whom right hemi-diaphragmatic paralysis developed after cardiac radiofrequency ablation. We hypothesise that local focused thermal energy at the time of the ablation may have caused direct neuronal damage by axonal coagulation necrosis. The prognosis for this type of injury may be reasonably good; two of the three patients fully recovered diaphragm function by 1 year. (+info)
Involvement of peripheral adenosine A2 receptors in adenosine A1 receptor-mediated recovery of respiratory motor function after upper cervical spinal cord hemisection.
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: In an animal model of spinal cord injury, a latent respiratory motor pathway can be pharmacologically activated through central adenosine A1 receptor antagonism to restore respiratory function after cervical (C2) spinal cord hemisection that paralyzes the hemidiaphragm ipsilateral to injury. Although respiration is modulated by central and peripheral mechanisms, putative involvement of peripheral adenosine A2 receptors in functional recovery in our model is untested. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of peripherally located adenosine A2 receptors on recovery of respiratory function after cervical (C2) spinal cord hemisection. METHODS: Respiratory activity was electrophysiologically assessed (under standardized recording conditions) in C2-hemisected adult rats with the carotid bodies intact (H-CBI; n=12) or excised (H-CBE; n=12). Animals were administered the adenosine A2 receptor agonist, CGS-21680, followed by the A1 receptor antagonist, 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX), or administered DPCPX alone. Recovered respiratory activity, characterized as drug-induced activity in the previously quiescent left phrenic nerve of C2-hemisected animals in H-CBI and H-CBE rats, was compared. Recovered respiratory activity was calculated by dividing drug-induced activity in the left phrenic nerve by activity in the right phrenic nerve. RESULTS: Administration of CGS-21680 before DPCPX (n=6) in H-CBI rats induced a significantly greater recovery (58.5 +/- 3.6%) than when DPCPX (42.6 +/- 4.6%) was administered (n=6) alone. In H-CBE rats, prior administration of CGS-21680 (n=6) did not enhance recovery over that induced by DPCPX (n=6) alone. Recovery in H-CBE rats amounted to 39.7 +/- 3.7% and 38.4 + 4.2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that adenosine A2 receptors located in the carotid bodies can enhance the magnitude of adenosine A1 receptor-mediated recovery of respiratory function after C2 hemisection. We conclude that a novel approach of targeting peripheral and central adenosine receptors can be therapeutically beneficial in alleviating compromised respiratory function after cervical spinal cord injury. (+info)
Spontaneous recovery of diaphragmatic strength in unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate diaphragmatic strength in patients with unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis and to determine whether patients with recent diaphragm paralysis develop lower inspiratory pressure than patients with longstanding diaphragmatic paralysis. Twenty patients (16 men and 4 women, 62+/-12 years) and six control subjects were included (4 men and 2 women, 53+/-15 years) in the study. Esophageal pressure during sharp sniff (Pes,sniff), bilateral cervical phrenic nerve magnetic stimulation (Pes,cms) and unilateral phrenic nerve stimulation (Pes,ums) (in nine patients) were measured. Sixteen patients presented right diaphragmatic paralysis and four, left diaphragmatic paralysis. Pes,sniff was higher in control subjects than in patients with diaphragmatic paralysis (respectively 110+/-22 cmH2O and 82+/-24 cmH2O, P<0.05). There was no difference in Pes,cms between patients with diaphragmatic paralysis and control subjects (14+/-7 cmH2O vs. 16+/-4 cmH2O; ns). Pes,ums after stimulation of the affected phrenic nerve was less than 4 cmH2O, was 8+/-2 cmH2O after stimulation of the intact phrenic nerve and was correlated to Pes,cms (R=0.87, P<0.01). There was a positive correlation between Pes,cms, Pes,ums of the intact hemidiaphragm, Pes,sniff and the time from the onset of symptoms and the diaphragmatic explorations (respectively R=0.86, P<0.0001; R=0.72, P<0.05; R=0.48, P<0.05). In conclusion, diaphragmatic strength after unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis seems to improve with time. (+info)
Breathless in the bath.
The case is reported of a male track and field athlete with breathing difficulties at rest and during exercise, which were exacerbated in the supine position and during water immersion. Right hemidiaphragmatic paralysis was diagnosed. The cause of this relatively benign disorder is not known and there are no serious clinical implications. There is no treatment, but a continuation of exercise together with interventions to strengthen the subsidiary inspiratory muscles is recommended. (+info)
Inspiratory muscle pacing in spinal cord injury: case report and clinical commentary.
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: A significant fraction of patients with cervical spinal cord injury suffer from respiratory muscle paralysis and dependence on chronic mechanical ventilation. In selected patients, diaphragm pacing (DP) through electrical stimulation of the phrenic nerves provides an alternative to mechanical ventilation with significant advantages in life quality. METHODS: A case report of an individual who successfully underwent DP using intramuscular diaphragm electrodes. A brief review of the state of the art of DP including the clinical benefits of DP, patient selection and evaluation, description of equipment, methods of transition from mechanical ventilation to DP, potential complications and side effects, long-term outcome, and potential future developments in this field is included. RESULTS: Several available DP systems are available, including conventional ones in which electrodes are positioned directly on the phrenic nerves through thoracotomy and less invasive systems in which electrodes are placed within the diaphragm through laparoscopy. For patients with only unilateral phrenic nerve function, a combined intercostal and unilateral diaphragm pacing system is under development. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ventilator-dependent tetraplegia, there are alternative methods of ventilatory support, which offer substantial benefits compared to mechanical ventilation. (+info)
Spinal activation of serotonin 1A receptors enhances latent respiratory activity after spinal cord injury.
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Hemisection of the cervical spinal cord results in paralysis of the ipsilateral hemidiaphragm. Removal of sensory feedback through cervical dorsal rhizotomy activates latent respiratory motor pathways and restores hemidiaphragm function. Because systemic administration of serotonin 1A receptor (5HT1A) agonists reversed the altered breathing patterns after spinal cord injury (SCI), we predicted that 5HT1A receptor activation after SCI (C2) would activate latent crossed motor pathways. Furthermore, because 5HT1 A receptors are heavily localized to dorsal horn neurons, we predicted that spinal administration of 5HT1A agonists should also activate latent motor pathways. METHODS: Hemisection of the C2 spinal cord was performed 24 to 48 hours, 1 week, or 16 weeks before experimentation. Bilateral phrenic nerve activity was recorded in anesthetized, vagotomized, paralyzed Sprague-Dawley rats, and 8-OH-DPAT (5HT1A agonist) was applied to the dorsal aspect of the cervical spinal cord (C3-C7) or injected systemically. RESULTS: Systemic administration of 8-OH-DPAT led to a significant increase in phrenic frequency and amplitude, whereas direct application to the spinal cord increased phrenic amplitude alone. Both systemic and spinal administration of 8-OH-DPAT consistently activated latent crossed phrenic activity. 8-OH-DPAT induced a greater respiratory response in spinal injured rats compared with controls. CONCLUSION: The increase in crossed phrenic output after application of 8-OH-DPAT to the spinal cord suggests that dorsal horn inputs, respiratory and/or nonrespiratory, may inhibit phrenic motor output, especially after SCI. These findings support the idea that the administration of 5HT1A agonists may be a beneficial therapy in enhancing respiratory neural output in patients with SCI. (+info)
Hemidiaphragmatic paralysis: an underestimated etiology of right-to-left shunt through patent foramen ovale?
OBJECTIVE: To report a specific pathophysiology of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis that may result in severe hypoxemia. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Intensive care unit in a cardiology hospital. PATIENTS: The series included three patients with refractory hypoxemia in whom a diagnosis of right-to-left-shunt through a patent foramen ovale was made by contrast echocardiography. The three patients had a complete right hemidiaphragmatic paralysis. INTERVENTION: Permanent percutaneous closure of the patent foramen ovale was successfully proceeded in all cases. MAIN RESULT: These procedures resulted in complete normalization of arterial oxygen saturation. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, only three previous reports have described the association of right-to-left shunt through a patent foramen ovale and hemidiaphragmatic paralysis. Such association may be underestimated. (+info)