The effect of reflux and bile acid aspiration on the lung allograft and its surfactant and innate immunity molecules SP-A and SP-D.
Gastro-esophageal reflux and related pulmonary bile acid aspiration were prospectively investigated as possible contributors to postlung transplant bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). We also studied the impact of aspiration on pulmonary surfactant collectin proteins SP-A and SP-D and on surfactant phospholipids--all important components of innate immunity in the lung. Proximal and distal esophageal 24-h pH testing and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) bile acid assays were performed prospectively at 3-month posttransplant in 50 patients. BALF was also assayed for SP-A, SP-D and phospholipids expressed as ratio to total lipids: phosphatidylcholine; dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine; phosphatidylglycerol (PG); phosphatidylinositol; sphingomyelin (SM) and lysophosphatidylcholine. Actuarial freedom from BOS was assessed. Freedom from BOS was reduced in patients with abnormal (proximal and/or distal) esophageal pH findings or BALF bile acids (Log-rank Mantel-Cox p < 0.05). Abnormal pH findings were observed in 72% (8 of 11) of patients with bile acids detected within the BALF. BALF with high levels of bile acids also had significantly lower SP-A, SP-D, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine; PG and higher SM levels (Mann-Whitney, p < 0.05). Duodeno-gastro-esophageal reflux and consequent aspiration is a risk factor for the development of BOS postlung transplant. Bile acid aspiration is associated with impaired lung allograft innate immunity manifest by reduced surfactant collectins and altered phospholipids. (+info)
Tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration in children - diagnostic value of symptoms and signs.
OBJECTIVE: Tracheobronchial foreign body (TFB) aspiration is a common cause of respiratory compromise in early childhood. Research indicates that a high number of children are missed with TFB aspiration. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of potential TFB aspiration. STUDY DESIGN: We analysed 370 endoscopic reports of children admitted to our emergency department who underwent explorative rigid bronchoscopy to exclude/remove a TFB (1989-2003). Patient characteristics, history, clinical, radiographic and bronchoscopic findings were noted. Sensitivities and specificities for TFB aspiration were calculated for patient history, clinical and radiographic findings. RESULTS: The median age was 1.8 years. In 59.7% of patients a TFB was found and removed. A group analysis was performed on children with symptoms less than 2 weeks (group A) and those more than 2 weeks (group B). The results showed that unilateral diminished breath sounds and unilateral overdistension on chest X-ray were the most sensitive (53-79%) and specific (68-88%) findings in both groups. The clinical triad of acute choking/coughing, wheezing and unilateral diminished breath sounds had a high specificity (96-98%) in both groups. In contrast, a positive history of acute choking/coughing in group A or a permanent cough in group B showed a low specificity (8-16%). CONCLUSION: In a paediatric respiratory compromise, the presence of unilateral diminished breath sounds, pathological chest X-ray or clinical triad is a powerful indicator for occurred TFB aspiration. Since no single or combined variables can predict TFB aspiration with full certainty, bronchoscopic exploration should be performed if TFB aspiration is suspected. (+info)
Deglutitive laryngeal closure in stroke patients.
BACKGROUND: Dysphagia has been reported in up to 70% of patients with stroke, predisposing them to aspiration and pneumonia. Despite this, the mechanism for aspiration remains unclear. AIMS: To determine the relationship between bolus flow and laryngeal closure during swallowing in patients with stroke and to examine the sensorimotor mechanisms leading to aspiration. METHODS: Measures of swallowing and bolus flow were taken from digital videofluoroscopic images in 90 patients with stroke and 50 healthy adults, after repeated volitional swallows of controlled volumes of thin liquid. Aspiration was assessed using a validated Penetration-Aspiration Scale. Oral sensation was also measured by electrical stimulation at the faucial pillars. RESULTS: After stroke, laryngeal ascent was delayed (mean (standard deviation (SD)) 0.31 (0.06) s, p<0.001), resulting in prolongation of pharyngeal transit time (1.17 (0.07) s, p<0.001) without a concomitant increase in laryngeal closure duration (0.84 (0.04) s, p = 0.9). The delay in laryngeal elevation correlated with both the severity of aspiration (r = 0.5, p<0.001) and oral sensation (r = 0.5, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: After stroke, duration of laryngeal delay and degree of sensory deficit are associated with the severity of aspiration. These findings indicate a role for sensorimotor interactions in control of swallowing and have implications for the assessment and management of dysphagia after stroke. (+info)
Advances in the diagnosis and management of chronic pulmonary aspiration in children.
Chronic pulmonary aspiration (CPA) in children is an important cause of recurrent pneumonia, progressive lung injury, respiratory disability and death. It is sporadic, intermittent and variable, and often occurs in children with complicated underlying medical conditions and syndromes that produce symptoms indistinguishable from CPA. For most types of aspiration there is no gold-standard diagnostic test. The diagnosis of CPA is currently made clinically with some supporting diagnostic evaluations, but often not until significant lung injury has been sustained. Despite multiple diagnostic techniques, the diagnosis or exclusion of CPA in children is challenging. This is of particular concern given the outcome of unrecognised progressive lung injury and the invasiveness of definitive therapies. Although new techniques have been introduced since the 1990s and significant advances in the understanding of dysphagia and gastro-oesophageal reflux have been made, characterisation of the aspirating child remains elusive. (+info)
A 45-year-old man with a lung mass and history of charcoal aspiration.
A 45-year-old man was seen in consultation for evaluation of a spiculated right-lower-lobe mass that enlarged over 1 year. The patient had suffered accidental instillation of activated charcoal into the right lung via nasogastric tube 2 years prior to this consultation, with resultant respiratory failure, pneumonia, and pneumothorax. Biopsy of the mass showed anthracosis and granulomatous inflammation. A positron emission tomogram was strongly positive at the lesion, and right-lower-lobectomy with partial diaphragmatic resection was performed. On gross examination of the mass, a charcoal concretion was evident. Histologic examination showed intrinsic and surrounding granulomatous inflammation, but without tumor. The patient recovered uneventfully, and after 1 year had not experienced further complications. (+info)
Can pulse oximetry or a bedside swallowing assessment be used to detect aspiration after stroke?
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Desaturation during swallowing may help to identify aspiration in stroke patients. This study investigated pulse oximetry, bedside swallowing assessment (BSA), and videofluoroscopy as tests for detecting aspiration after stroke. METHODS: Swallowing was assessed in 189 stroke patients (mean+/-SD age, 70.9+/-12.3 years) within 5 days of symptom onset with a modified BSA (water replaced by radio-opaque contrast agent, followed by chest radiography to detect aspiration). Simultaneous pulse oximetry recorded the greatest desaturation from baseline for 10 minutes from modified BSA onset. Videofluoroscopy was undertaken in 54 (28%) patients. RESULTS: Modified BSA showed a safe swallow in 98 (51.9%), unsafe swallow in 85 (45.0%), and silent aspiration in 6 (3.2%) patients. During swallowing, desaturation by >2% occurred in 27 (27.6%) and by >5% in 3 (3.1%) of the 98 safe-swallow patients on modified BSA. Of the 85 unsafe-swallow patients, only 28 (32.9%) desaturated by >2% and 6 (7.1%) by >5%. Desaturation did not occur in any of the 6 silent aspirators. With the modified BSA to detect aspiration, sensitivity and specificity, respectively, were 0.31 and 0.72 for desaturation >2% and 0.07 and 0.97 for desaturation >5%. By videofluoroscopy, sensitivity and specificity for detecting aspiration were 0.47 and 0.72 for modified BSA, 0.33 and 0.62 for desaturation >2%, and 0.13 and 0.95 for desaturation >5%. Combining a failed modified BSA with desaturation >2% or >5% did not significantly improve predictive values. CONCLUSIONS: Modified BSA and pulse oximetry during swallowing, whether alone or in combination, showed inadequate sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for detection of aspiration compared with videofluoroscopy in stroke patients. (+info)
Aspiration in the context of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary aspiration is a life-threatening complication of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, the incidence of which has not been determined. Endoscopy-related aspiration has not been studied in procedures in which patients swallow a radiolabelled potential aspirate immediately before endoscopy and undergo nuclear scanning postprocedure. METHODS: A pilot study was conducted in which 200 MBq of nonabsorbable technetium-99m phytate in 10 mL of water was administered orally to 50 patients who were about to undergo endoscopy. Gamma camera images were obtained to ensure that there had been no aspiration before endoscopy. After endoscopy, a repeat scan was performed. Fluid aspirated through the endoscope was also collected and analyzed for radioactivity using a hand-held radiation monitor. RESULTS: No evidence of pulmonary aspiration was found in any of the patients studied. The mean estimated percentage of the initially administered radioactivity aspirated through the endoscope was 2.66% (range 0% to 10.3%). CONCLUSION: The present pilot study confirms earlier observations that clinically significant aspiration in the context of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is uncommon. The incidence of aspiration may, however, be different in acutely bleeding patients undergoing endoscopy. For logistic reasons, this group could not be studied. (+info)
Oropharyngeal dysphagia in juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM): an evaluation of videofluoroscopy swallow study (VFSS) changes in relation to clinical symptoms and objective muscle scores.
OBJECTIVE: To determine if objective, validated scores of muscle weakness and function [manual muscle testing (MMT), childhood myositis assessment scale (CMAS)] or scores of general disease activity or function [childhood health assessment questionnaire and physician global assessment of disease activity visual analogue scale (VAS)], can predict children at risk of swallow abnormalities in juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) measured by videofluoroscopic swallow studies (VFSS). METHODS: Patients were referred for speech and language dysphagia assessment upon diagnosis of JDM or flare of disease. VFSS was used to document a swallow score indicating severity of swallow dysfunction. Clinical symptoms, examination findings and objective scores of disease activity were analysed. Any correlation was looked for using chi-squared Fisher exact test and linear regression models. RESULTS: Fourteen patients with inflammatory myopathy (age 2-16 years) had clinical assessments and VFSS. VFSS was abnormal in 11 children (79%). Only two children were asymptomatic at assessment, but both had swallow dysfunction, including aspiration, on VFSS. In contrast, three of the symptomatic children had a normal VFSS. No relationship was found between objective disease severity scores and VFSS swallow score. CONCLUSIONS: This study failed to show any correlation between swallow score and objective measures of muscle strength and function (MMT/CMAS) or general disease activity and function [physician VAS/childhood health assessment questionnaire (CHAQ)]. In the absence of a more accurate assessment method to determine which children with active JDM are most at risk of swallow dysfunction and aspiration, all children with active dermatomyositis should be referred for speech and language assessment and VFSS. (+info)