Fitzgerald factor (high molecular weight kininogen) clotting activity in human plasma in health and disease in various animal plasmas.
Fitzgerald factor (high molecular weight kininogen) is an agent in normal human plasma that corrects the impaired in vitro surface-mediated plasma reactions of blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and kinin generation observed in Fitzgerald trait plasma. To assess the possible pathophysiologic role of Fitzgerald factor, its titer was measured by a functional clot-promoting assay. Mean +/- SD in 42 normal adults was 0.99+/-0.25 units/ml, one unit being the activity in 1 ml of normal pooled plasma. No difference in titer was noted between normal men and women, during pregnancy, or after physical exercise. Fitzgerald factor activity was significantly reduced in the plasmas of eight patients with advanced hepatic cirrhosis (0.40+/-0.09 units/ml) and of ten patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation (0.60+/-0.30 units/ml), but was normal in plasmas of patients with other congenital clotting factor deficiencies, nephrotic syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or sarcoidosis, or under treatment with warfarin. The plasmas of 21 mammalian species tested appeared to contain Fitzgerald factor activity, but those of two avian, two repitilian, and one amphibian species did not correct the coagulant defect in Fitzgerald trait plasmas. (+info)
Evidence for a correlation between the number of marginal band microtubules and the size of vertebrate erthrocytes.
In 23 species of vertebrates the dimensions of erythrocytes and the number of their marginal band microtubules were examined. A positive correlation was found between the size of erythrocytes and the number of microtubules. The absence of microtubules in diskoid erythrocytes of mammals-Camelidae-is discussed. (+info)
Activities of citrate synthase, NAD+-linked and NADP+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases, glutamate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in nervous tissues from vertebrates and invertebrates.
1. The activities of citrate synthase and NAD+-linked and NADP+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases were measured in nervous tissue from different animals in an attempt to provide more information about the citric acid cycle in this tissue. In higher animals the activities of citrate synthase are greater than the sum of activities of the isocitrate dehydrogenases, whereas they are similar in nervous tissues from the lower animals. This suggests that in higher animals the isocitrate dehydrogenase reaction is far-removed from equilibrium. If it is assumed that isocitrate dehydrogenase activities provide an indication of the maximum flux through the citric acid cycle, the maximum glycolytic capacity in nervous tissue is considerably greater than that of the cycle. This suggest that glycolysis can provide energy in excess of the aerobic capacity of the tissue. 2. The activities of glutamate dehydrogenase are high in most nervous tissues and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase are high in all nervous tissue investigated. However, the activities of alanine aminotransferase are low in all tissues except the ganglia of the waterbug and cockroach. In these insect tissues, anaerobic glycolysis may result in the formation of alanine rather than lactate. (+info)
Morphological and histochemical variations of mucous and oxynticopeptic cells in the stomach of the seps, Chalcides chalcides.
Mucous and oxynticopeptic cells in the gastric mucosa of the seps, Chalcides chalcides (Linnaeus, 1758) were examined by standard histochemical staining methods and by lectin histochemistry. The epithelial mucous cells lining the surface of the stomach and the mucous cells of the fundic glands elaborated mainly neutral glycoproteins with beta(1,4)GlcNAc oligomers, GalNAc glycosidic residues and Gal beta1,3GalNAc terminal sequences. The mucous cells of the fundic glands were stained specifically with the Paradoxical Con A method. The mucosecreting cells of the pyloric glands produced neutral glycoproteins, with beta(1,4)GlcNAc oligomers, GalNAc residues and Gal beta1,3GalNAc terminal sequences. Terminal L-fucose bound to the penultimate GlcNAc residues, and/or difucosylated oligosaccharides were also present. The pyloric glands did not stain with the Paradoxical Con A procedure. The morphology of the oxynticopeptic cells changes from the oral to the aboral region of the fundic mucosa. In the oral fundic tract the oxynticopeptic cells showed cytoplasm filled with zymogen granules, while in the aboral fundic region these cells contained few zymogen granules and showed cytoplasm full of empty vesicles, typical of the acid secreting cells. A secretion gradient of proteolytic enzymes and hydrochloric acid along the fundic mucosa of the seps can be hypothesised. (+info)
Genetic structure of natural populations of Escherichia coli in wild hosts on different continents.
Current knowledge of genotypic and phenotypic diversity in the species Escherichia coli is based almost entirely on strains recovered from humans or zoo animals. In this study, we analyzed a collection of 202 strains obtained from 81 mammalian species representing 39 families and 14 orders in Australia and the Americas, as well as several reference strains; we also included a strain from a reptile and 10 from different families of birds collected in Mexico. The strains were characterized genotypically by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) and phenotypically by patterns of sugar utilization, antibiotic resistance, and plasmid profile. MLEE analysis yielded an estimated genetic diversity (H) of 0.682 for 11 loci. The observed genetic diversity in this sample is the greatest yet reported for E. coli. However, this genetic diversity is not randomly distributed; geographic effects and host taxonomic group accounted for most of the genetic differentiation. The genetic relationship among the strains showed that they are more associated by origin and host order than is expected by chance. In a dendrogram, the ancestral cluster includes primarily strains from Australia and ECOR strains from groups B and C. The most differentiated E. coli in our analysis are strains from Mexican carnivores and strains from humans, including those in the ECOR group A. The kinds and numbers of sugars utilized by the strains varied by host taxonomic group and country of origin. Strains isolated from bats were found to exploit the greatest range of sugars, while those from primates utilized the fewest. Toxins are more frequent in strains from rodents from both continents than in any other taxonomic group. Strains from Mexican wild mammals were, on average, as resistant to antibiotics as strains from humans in cities. On average, the Australian strains presented a lower antibiotic resistance than the Mexican strains. However, strains recovered from hosts in cities carried significantly more plasmids than did strains isolated from wild mammals. Previous studies have shown that natural populations of E. coli harbor an extensive genetic diversity that is organized in a limited number of clones. However, knowledge of this worldwide bacterium has been limited. Here, we suggest that the strains from a wide range of wild hosts from different regions of the world are organized in an ecotypic structure where adaptation to the host plays an important role in the population structure. (+info)
Developmental evolution: this side of paradise.
It has long been appreciated that the evolution of snakes involved the loss of limbs and axis elongation, but their developmental basis has been obscure. It has now been shown that alterations in the deployment of Hox genes and an early block in the formation of hindlimb primordia underpin these modifications. (+info)
During 1996-1998, CDC received reports from approximately 16 state health departments of Salmonella infections in persons who had direct or indirect contact with reptiles (i.e., lizards, snakes, or turtles). Salmonella infection can result in invasive illness including sepsis and meningitis, particularly in infants. Despite educational efforts, some reptile owners remain unaware that reptiles place them and their children at risk for salmonellosis. This report summarizes clinical and epidemiologic information in four cases and provides information about state regulations to prevent transmission of Salmonella spp. from reptiles to humans. (+info)
Comparative development of the mammalian isocortex and the reptilian dorsal ventricular ridge. Evolutionary considerations.
There has been a long debate about a possible homology between parts of the dorsal ventricular ridge (DVR) of reptiles and birds, and parts of the mammalian isocortex. Correspondence between these structures was originally proposed on the basis of connectional similarities between the DVR of birds and the mammalian auditory and extrastriate visual isocortical areas. Furthermore, the proposal of homology includes the possible embryological similarity of cells that give rise to the DVR and cells that give rise to the isocortex. Against this concept it has been claimed that the DVR and the isocortex originate in topographically different pallial compartments, an interpretation that is supported by recent developmental and molecular data. Other studies indicate that migrating cells can cross the borders between adjacent developmental compartments: cells that originate in subcortical components contribute a number of interneurons to the developing isocortex via tangential migration. This mechanism might reconcile the proposed homology with the developmental evidence, since cells originating in one compartment (the one corresponding to DVR) may become included in structures generated in a different compartment (the one corresponding to isocortex). However, there is no evidence in mammals of a structure homologous to the embryonic DVR that can produce isocortical neurons. In order to fully clarify the problem of isocortical origins, further comparative studies are needed of the embryonic development of the lateral and dorsal aspects of the cerebral hemispheres in amphibians, reptiles and mammals. (+info)