(1/1775) Human topoisomerase I promotes initiation of simian virus 40 DNA replication in vitro.
Addition of purified human topoisomerase I (topo I) to simian virus 40 T antigen-driven in vitro DNA replication reactions performed with topo I-deficient extracts results in a greater than 10-fold stimulation of completed molecules as well as a more than 3-fold enhancement of overall DNA replication. To further characterize this stimulation, we first demonstrate that bovine topo I but not Escherichia coli topo I can also enhance DNA replication. By using several human topo I mutants, we show that a catalytically active form of topo I is required. To delineate whether topo I influences the initiation or the elongation step of replication, we performed delayed pulse, pulse-chase, and delayed pulse-chase experiments. The results illustrate that topo I cannot promote the completion of partially replicated molecules but is needed from the beginning of the reaction to initiate replication. Competitive inhibition experiments with the topo I binding T antigen fragment 1-246T and a catalytically inactive topo I mutant suggest that part of topo I's stimulation of replication is mediated through a direct interaction with T antigen. Collectively, our data indicate that topo I enhances the synthesis of fully replicated DNA molecules by forming essential interactions with T antigen and stimulating initiation. (+info)
(2/1775) Double-strand break repair in yeast requires both leading and lagging strand DNA polymerases.
Mitotic double-strand break (DSB)-induced gene conversion at MAT in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was analyzed molecularly in mutant strains thermosensitive for essential replication factors. The processivity cofactors PCNA and RFC are essential even to synthesize as little as 30 nucleotides following strand invasion. Both PCNA-associated DNA polymerases delta and epsilon are important for gene conversion, though a temperature-sensitive Pol epsilon mutant is more severe than one in Pol delta. Surprisingly, mutants of lagging strand replication, DNA polymerase alpha (pol1-17), DNA primase (pri2-1), and Rad27p (rad27 delta) also greatly inhibit completion of DSB repair, even in G1-arrested cells. We propose a novel model for DSB-induced gene conversion in which a strand invasion creates a modified replication fork, involving leading and lagging strand synthesis from the donor template. Replication is terminated by capture of the second end of the DSB. (+info)
(3/1775) Plasmid replication initiator protein RepD increases the processivity of PcrA DNA helicase.
The replication initiator protein RepD encoded by the Staphylococcus chloramphenicol resistance plasmid pC221 stimulates the helicase activity of the Bacillus stearothermophilus PcrA DNA helicase in vitro. This stimulatory effect seems to be specific for PcrA and differs from the stimulatory effect of the Escherichia coli ribosomal protein L3. Whereas L3 stimulates the PcrA helicase activity by promoting co-operative PcrA binding onto its DNA substrate, RepD stimulates the PcrA helicase activity by increasing the processivity of the enzyme and enables PcrA to displace DNA from a nicked substrate. The implication of these results is that PcrA is the helicase recruited into the replisome by RepD during rolling circle replication of plasmids of the pT181 family. (+info)
(4/1775) OBA/Ku86: DNA binding specificity and involvement in mammalian DNA replication.
Ors-binding activity (OBA) was previously semipurified from HeLa cells through its ability to interact specifically with the 186-basepair (bp) minimal replication origin of ors8 and support ors8 replication in vitro. Here, through competition band-shift analyses, using as competitors various subfragments of the 186-bp minimal ori, we identified an internal region of 59 bp that competed for OBA binding as efficiently as the full 186-bp fragment. The 59-bp fragment has homology to a 36-bp sequence (A3/4) generated by comparing various mammalian replication origins, including the ors. A3/4 is, by itself, capable of competing most efficiently for OBA binding to the 186-bp fragment. Band-shift elution of the A3/4-OBA complex, followed by Southwestern analysis using the A3/4 sequence as probe, revealed a major band of approximately 92 kDa involved in the DNA binding activity of OBA. Microsequencing analysis revealed that the 92-kDa polypeptide is identical to the 86-kDa subunit of human Ku antigen. The affinity-purified OBA fraction obtained using an A3/4 affinity column also contained the 70-kDa subunit of Ku and the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit. In vitro DNA replication experiments in the presence of A3/4 oligonucleotide or anti-Ku70 and anti-Ku86 antibodies implicate Ku in mammalian DNA replication. (+info)
(5/1775) Short DNA fragments without sequence similarity are initiation sites for replication in the chromosome of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.
We have previously shown that both a centromere (CEN) and a replication origin are necessary for plasmid maintenance in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica (). Because of this requirement, only a small number of centromere-proximal replication origins have been isolated from Yarrowia. We used a CEN-based plasmid to obtain noncentromeric origins, and several new fragments, some unique and some repetitive sequences, were isolated. Some of them were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and correspond to actual sites of initiation (ORI) on the chromosome. We observed that a 125-bp fragment is sufficient for a functional ORI on plasmid, and that chromosomal origins moved to ectopic sites on the chromosome continue to act as initiation sites. These Yarrowia origins share an 8-bp motif, which is not essential for origin function on plasmids. The Yarrowia origins do not display any obvious common structural features, like bent DNA or DNA unwinding elements, generally present at or near eukaryotic replication origins. Y. lipolytica origins thus share features of those in the unicellular Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in multicellular eukaryotes: they are discrete and short genetic elements without sequence similarity. (+info)
(6/1775) Replication regions from plant-pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae plasmids are similar to ColE2-related replicons.
Many strains of the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae contain mutually compatible plasmids that share extensive regions of sequence homology and essential replication determinants. The replication regions of two compatible large plasmids involved in virulence or pathogenicity, pPT23A from P. syringae pv. tomato strain PT23 and pAV505 from P. syringae pv. phaseolicola strain HRI1302A, were isolated. DNA sequencing of the origins of replication revealed homologous ORFs, designated ORF-Pto and ORF-Pph, respectively. Both ORFs are 1311 bp long and encode peptides of 437 amino acids with predicted molecular masses of 48259 (Pto) and 48334 (Pph) Da. Expression of the two ORFs in Escherichia coli produced peptides of 50 kDa (Pto) and 56 kDa (Pph). The predicted peptides showed an overall identity of 897 %, being highly conserved from residues 1 to 373, but showing considerable variation in their C-terminal regions (50% identity over the last 64 aa). The two ORFs had significant similarity with the putative replication protein from plasmid pTiK12 of Thiobacillus intermedius and other CoIE2-related plasmids. However, both peptides were 100 residues longer than any of the known CoIE2-related rep sequences. Subcloning of fragments from the replication region of pPT23A revealed the presence of at least three incompatibility determinants, designated IncA, IncB and IncC. Partial sequencing of the region downstream of ORF-Pto revealed homology to the ru/AB genes, involved in UV resistance, from plasmid pPSR1. It is proposed that the replication origin of pPT23A serves as the prototype of a family of related plasmids. (+info)
(7/1775) Distribution of minichromosomes in individual Escherichia coli cells: implications for replication control.
A novel method was devised to measure the number of plasmids in individual Escherichia coli cells. With this method, involving measurement of plasmid-driven expression of the green fluorescent protein gene by flow cytometry, the copy number distribution of a number of different plasmids was measured. Whereas natural plasmids had fairly narrow distributions, minichromosomes, which are plasmids replicating only from a cloned oriC copy, have a wide distribution, suggesting that there is no copy number control for minichromosomes. When the selection pressure (kanamycin concentration) for minichromosomes was increased, the copy number of minichromosomes was also increased. At up to 30 minichromosomes per host chromosome, replication and growth of the host cell was unaffected. This is evidence that there is no negative element for initiation control in oriC and that there is no incompatibility between oriC located on the chromosome and minichromosome. However, higher copy numbers led to integration of the minichromosomes at the chromosomal oriC and to initiation asynchrony of the host chromosome. At a minichromosome copy number of approximately 30, the cell's capacity for synchronous initiation is exceeded and free minichromosomes will compete out the chromosome to yield inviable cells, unless the minichromosomes are incorporated into the chromosome. (+info)
(8/1775) Initiation of DNA replication at the Chinese hamster origin oriGNAI3 relies on local sequences and/or chromatin structures, but not on transcription of the nearby GNAI3 gene.
We recently identified a region of preferential replication initiation, oriGNAI3, near the 3' end of the Chinese hamster GNAI3 gene. oriGNAI3 is co-amplified in mutants selected for AMPD2 amplification, a process generating chromosomal rearrangements. In this report we have taken advantage of cell lines with truncated and translocated amplified units to show that these rearrangements do not alter the function of ori GNAI3. These results indicate that replication initiation at this locus relies essentially on local features. Interestingly, the study of one line in which a rearrangement has disrupted the GNAI3 gene shows that ongoing transcription of this gene is not required for initiation at oriGNAI3. In order to obtain further insight into the sequences and/or chromatin structures required for oriGNAI3 function, we have analyzed the DNase I sensitivity and nucleotide sequence of the region. The features important for replication initiation appear to cluster in a 7-12 kb region which includes oriGNAI3. (+info)