Reovirus virion-like particles obtained by recoating infectious subvirion particles with baculovirus-expressed sigma3 protein: an approach for analyzing sigma3 functions during virus entry. (1/339)

Structure-function studies with mammalian reoviruses have been limited by the lack of a reverse-genetic system for engineering mutations into the viral genome. To circumvent this limitation in a partial way for the major outer-capsid protein sigma3, we obtained in vitro assembly of large numbers of virion-like particles by binding baculovirus-expressed sigma3 protein to infectious subvirion particles (ISVPs) that lack sigma3. A level of sigma3 binding approaching 100% of that in native virions was routinely achieved. The sigma3 coat in these recoated ISVPs (rcISVPs) appeared very similar to that in virions by electron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction. rcISVPs retained full infectivity in murine L cells, allowing their use to study sigma3 functions in virus entry. Upon infection, rcISVPs behaved identically to virions in showing an extended lag phase prior to exponential growth and in being inhibited from entering cells by either the weak base NH4Cl or the cysteine proteinase inhibitor E-64. rcISVPs also mimicked virions in being incapable of in vitro activation to mediate lysis of erythrocytes and transcription of the viral mRNAs. Last, rcISVPs behaved like virions in showing minor loss of infectivity at 52 degrees C. Since rcISVPs contain virion-like levels of sigma3 but contain outer-capsid protein mu1/mu1C mostly cleaved at the delta-phi junction as in ISVPs, the fact that rcISVPs behaved like virions (and not ISVPs) in all of the assays that we performed suggests that sigma3, and not the delta-phi cleavage of mu1/mu1C, determines the observed differences in behavior between virions and ISVPs. To demonstrate the applicability of rcISVPs for genetic studies of protein functions in reovirus entry (an approach that we call recoating genetics), we used chimeric sigma3 proteins to localize the primary determinants of a strain-dependent difference in sigma3 cleavage rate to a carboxy-terminal region of the ISVP-bound protein.  (+info)

Interferon-gamma plays a role in pancreatic islet-cell destruction of reovirus type 2-induced diabetes-like syndrome in DBA/1 suckling mice. (2/339)

Reovirus type 2 (Reo-2) infection in DBA/1 suckling mice causes insulitis, which leads to pancreatic islet-cell destruction, resulting in a diabetes-like syndrome. T-helper (Th) 1 cytokines are thought to play a key role in islet inflammation in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. We examined this hypothesis in the Reo-2-induced diabetes-like syndrome. We used reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative PCR techniques to examine mRNA expression of interferon (IFN)-gamma (Th1 type cytokine), and interleukin (IL)-4 (Th2 type cytokine) in splenic cells. We observed that in Reo-2 infected mice the level of IFN-gamma expression increases with the development of insulitis, whereas expression of message for IL-4 is minimal to detectable with the immuno-inflammatory process 10 days after infection. The treatment of monoclonal antibody (mAb) against mouse IFN-gamma during the expansion phase of insulitis (5-9 days after infection) inhibited the development of insulitis and the elevation of blood glucose concentrations in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore altered CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio compared with uninfected mice in the splenic cells by the infection was recovered to the ratio of uninfected mice by the treatment of mAb against mouse IFN-gamma, suggesting normalization of T cell balance in immune system. These results suggest that Reo-2-triggered autoimmune insulitis may be mediated by Th1 lymphocytes and IFN-gamma may play a role in islet inflammation leading to islet cell destruction.  (+info)

Reovirus type 3 clone 9 increases interleukin-1alpha level in the brain of neonatal, but not adult, mice. (3/339)

Reovirus Type 3 clone 9 (T3C9)-induced lethal encephalitis is age dependent. We examined the effects of T3C9 inoculated into neonatal and adult mice by intracerebral, intramuscular, or peroral routes and the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on IL-1alpha levels in the blood and the brain. In parallel, we measured mice survival to T3C9 challenge, primary replication, and growth in and spread to the brain. The results show that T3C9 infection increased IL-1alpha only in the brain of neonatal mice, whereas LPS enhanced IL-1alpha in the brain and in the blood in both neonatal and adult mice. In neonatal mice, a T3C9-induced IL-1alpha increase coincided with viral replication-induced nervous tissue injury and preceded death. Anti-IL-1alpha antibody partially protected neonatal mice against T3C9 peroral challenge, further suggesting that this cytokine is involved in the mechanisms leading to lethal encephalitis. In adult mice, T3C9 was not lethal and did not modify IL-1alpha levels although it slowly replicated in nervous tissues when inoculated directly into the brain. Together, these results suggest that differences in nervous tissue response to T3C9 replication between newborn and adult mice could account in part for the age-dependent susceptibility to T3C9-induced lethal encephalitis.  (+info)

Preliminary characterization of a reovirus isolated from golden ide Leuciscus idus melanotus. (4/339)

Some characteristics of a reovirus recently isolated from golden ide Leuciscus idus melanotus and tentatively designated as golden ide reovirus (GIRV) were determined. Spherical non-enveloped particles with an outer capsid of about 70 nm and an inner capsid of about 50 nm were observed by electron microscopy. The density of the virus determined in CsCl gradients was 1.36 g ml-1. The genome contained 11 segments of dsRNA. GIRV differed from other aquareoviruses by a slight reduction of infectivity after treatment with chloroform and by the absence of forming syncytia in cell monolayers.  (+info)

Mutant cells selected during persistent reovirus infection do not express mature cathepsin L and do not support reovirus disassembly. (5/339)

Persistent reovirus infections of murine L929 cells select cellular mutations that inhibit viral disassembly within the endocytic pathway. Mutant cells support reovirus growth when infection is initiated with infectious subvirion particles (ISVPs), which are intermediates in reovirus disassembly formed following proteolysis of viral outer-capsid proteins. However, mutant cells do not support growth of virions, indicating that these cells have a defect in virion-to-ISVP processing. To better understand mechanisms by which viruses use the endocytic pathway to enter cells, we defined steps in reovirus replication blocked in mutant cells selected during persistent infection. Subcellular localization of reovirus after adsorption to parental and mutant cells was assessed using confocal microscopy and virions conjugated to a fluorescent probe. Parental and mutant cells did not differ in the capacity to internalize virions or distribute them to perinuclear compartments. Using pH-sensitive probes, the intravesicular pH was determined and found to be equivalent in parental and mutant cells. In both cell types, virions localized to acidified intracellular organelles. The capacity of parental and mutant cells to support proteolysis of reovirus virions was assessed by monitoring the appearance of disassembly intermediates following adsorption of radiolabeled viral particles. Within 2 h after adsorption to parental cells, proteolysis of viral outer-capsid proteins was observed, consistent with formation of ISVPs. However, in mutant cells, no proteolysis of viral proteins was detected up to 8 h postadsorption. Since treatment of cells with E64, an inhibitor of cysteine-containing proteases, blocks reovirus disassembly, we used immunoblot analysis to assess the expression of cathepsin L, a lysosomal cysteine protease. In contrast to parental cells, mutant cells did not express the mature, proteolytically active form of the enzyme. The defect in cathepsin L maturation was not associated with mutations in procathepsin L mRNA, was not complemented by procathepsin L overexpression, and did not affect the maturation of cathepsin B, another lysosomal cysteine protease. These findings indicate that persistent reovirus infections select cellular mutations that affect the maturation of cathepsin L and suggest that alterations in the expression of lysosomal proteases can modulate viral cytopathicity.  (+info)

Identification and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of a variant of the Ibaraki virus from naturally infected cattle and aborted fetuses in Japan. (6/339)

One hundred fourteen field isolates of the Ibaraki virus (IBAV), a member of the epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 2 (EHDV-2), were isolated from blood samples of affected and apparently healthy cattle and Culicoides biting midges and from blood samples of dams and internal organs of aborted fetuses during an outbreak of Ibaraki disease in the southern part of Japan in 1997. In this outbreak, 242 cattle showed typical symptoms of the disease, and several hundred dams had miscarriages or stillbirths. The viruses that induced typical Ibaraki disease and reproductive problems among cattle were identical and were antigenically closely related to but distinct from previous isolates of IBAV and EHDV-2. The virus was considered to be a putative agent of this outbreak. Reverse transcription-PCR based on segment 3 of the RNA genome of EHDV-2 and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the PCR products were conducted to compare the genomes of the viruses. The results suggested that the virus isolated in 1997 was a variant of IBAV and might be exotic.  (+info)

Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibody to epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer virus. (7/339)

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has been developed to detect antibodies to epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer virus (EHDV). The assay incorporates a monoclonal antibody to EHDV serotype 2 (EHDV-2) that demonstrates specificity for the viral structural protein, VP7. The assay was evaluated with sequential sera collected from cattle experimentally infected with EHDV serotype 1 (EHDV-1) and EHDV-2, as well as the four serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV), BTV-10, BTV-11, BTV-13, and BTV-17, that currently circulate in the US. A competitive and a blocking format as well as the use of antigen produced from both EHDV-1- and EHDV-2-infected cells were evaluated. The assay was able to detect specific antibody as early as 7 days after infection and could differentiate animals experimentally infected with EHDV from those experimentally infected with BTV. The diagnostic potential of this assay was demonstrated with field-collected serum samples from cattle, deer, and buffalo.  (+info)

Calpain inhibition protects against virus-induced apoptotic myocardial injury. (8/339)

Viral myocarditis is an important cause of human morbidity and mortality for which reliable and effective therapy is lacking. Using reovirus strain 8B infection of neonatal mice, a well-characterized experimental model of direct virus-induced myocarditis, we now demonstrate that myocardial injury results from apoptosis. Proteases play a critical role as effectors of apoptosis. The activity of the cysteine protease calpain increases in reovirus-infected myocardiocytes and can be inhibited by the dipeptide alpha-ketoamide calpain inhibitor Z-Leu-aminobutyric acid-CONH(CH(2))3-morpholine (CX295). Treatment of reovirus-infected neonatal mice with CX295 protects them against reovirus myocarditis as documented by (i) a dramatic reduction in histopathologic evidence of myocardial injury, (ii) complete inhibition of apoptotic myocardial cell death as identified by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling, (iii) a reduction in serum creatine phosphokinase, and (iv) improved weight gain. These findings are the first evidence for the importance of a calpain-associated pathway of apoptotic cell death in viral disease. Inhibition of apoptotic signaling pathways may be an effective strategy for the treatment of viral disease in general and viral myocarditis in particular.  (+info)