Elevated carboxy terminal cross linked telopeptide of type I collagen in alcoholic cirrhosis: relation to liver and kidney function and bone metabolism.
BACKGROUND: The carboxy terminal cross linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) has been put forward as a marker of bone resorption. Patients with alcoholic liver disease may have osteodystrophy. AIMS: To assess circulating and regional concentrations of ICTP in relation to liver dysfunction, bone metabolism, and fibrosis. METHODS: In 15 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and 20 controls, hepatic venous, renal venous, and femoral arterial concentrations of ICTP, and bone mass and metabolism were measured. RESULTS: Circulating ICTP was higher in patients with cirrhosis than in controls. No overall significant hepatic disposal or production was found in the patient or control groups but slightly increased production was found in a subset of patients with advanced disease. Significant renal extraction was observed in the controls, whereas only a borderline significant extraction was observed in the patients. Measurements of bone mass and metabolism indicated only a mild degree of osteodystrophy in the patients with cirrhosis. ICTP correlated significantly in the cirrhotic patients with hepatic and renal dysfunction and fibrosis, but not with measurements of bone mass or metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: ICTP is highly elevated in patients with cirrhosis, with no detectable hepatic net production or disposal. No relation between ICTP and markers of bone metabolism was identified, but there was a relation to indicators of liver dysfunction and fibrosis. As the cirrhotic patients conceivably only had mild osteopenia, the elevated ICTP in cirrhosis may therefore primarily reflect liver failure and hepatic fibrosis. (+info)
Is low plasma 25-(OH)vitamin D a major risk factor for hyperparathyroidism and Looser's zones independent of calcitriol?
BACKGROUND: Recent reports suggest that calcitriol might not be the sole active metabolite of vitamin D and that plasma concentrations of 25-(OH)vitamin D (25OHD) are often abnormally low in hemodialysis patients. We have therefore evaluated plasma 25OHD as a risk factor for parathyroid hormone (PTH) hypersecretion and radiological bone disease. We carried out a cross-sectional study during the month of September in an Algerian dialysis center of 113 patients who were not taking supplements of alphacalcidol or calcitriol. METHODS: Plasma 25OHD, calcitriol, PTH, calcium, phosphate, bicarbonate, and aluminum were measured, and x-rays of the hands and pelvis were obtained for evaluation of subperiosteal resorption and Looser's zones. RESULTS: The median plasma 25OHD was 47.5 nmol/liter (range 2.5 to 170.0). Univariate analysis showed that plasma PTH was correlated positively with months on maintenance dialysis and negatively with plasma 25OHD, calcitriol, calcium, bicarbonate and aluminum, but not with that of phosphate. plasma 25OHD was positively correlated with calcium and calcitriol. Using multiple regression analysis, only plasma 25OHD (negative) and the duration on maintenance dialysis (positive) were independently linked to plasma PTH. The prevalence of isolated subperiosteal resorption (ISR) was 34%, and that of the combination of resorption with Looser's zones (CRLZ) was 9%; thus, only 57% of the patients had a normal x-ray appearance. These groups were comparable with regards to age, gender, and duration on dialysis. When the biochemical measurements of the patients with CRLZ were compared with those from patients without radiological lesions, plasma 25OHD was the only parameter to show a statistically significant difference, being significantly lower in the CRLZ group (26 +/- 18 vs. 57 nmol/liter, ANOVA, P < 0.004). Plasma 25OHD was also significantly lower in the ISR group (44, P < 0.05) than in the normal x-ray group, and plasma Ca (P < 0.003) and bicarbonate (P < 0.02) were lower. Logistical analysis showed that the presence of resorption was independently linked only with plasma PTH. Looser's zones and subperiosteal resorption were not seen in patients with plasma 25OHD of more than 40 (Looser's zones) and more than 100 nmol/liter (subperiosteal resorption). The optimal range for intact PTH in hemodialysis patients with mild aluminum overload is 10 to 25 pmol/liter. We found that plasma PTH was inappropriately high only when plasma 25OHD was less than 100 nmol/liter. With a plasma 25OHD of between 100 and 170 nmol/liter, hypercalcemia was present with a plasma PTH of less than 10 pmol/liter in only one case. CONCLUSIONS: This cross sectional study shows that low plasma 25OHD is a major risk factor for hyperparathyroidism and Looser's zones. In dialysis patients, we suggest that the plasma levels of 25OHD are maintained around the upper limit of the reference range of sunny countries. (+info)
Bone scintigraphy in renal osteodystrophy.
Bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m HEDP was performed in 30 patients on maintenance hemodialysis, and the results of quantitative analysis were compared with those of a normal group. To permit this comparison, elevated background activity due to the absence of renal radiotracer excretion was reduced by hemodialysis to levels found in the normals. Histologic proof of renal osteodystrophy had been obtained in all patients. The incidence of radiographic abnormalities was 46%, whereas abnormal scans were found in 25 patients (83%); skeletal lesions were also more pronounced and detected earlier. However, even when the scans appeared normal, the quantitative analysis showed increased skeletal activity in all patients. The total skeletal activity proved to be a good index of the severity of renal osteodystrophy and appeared dependent on both osteomalacia and hyperparathyroidism. These findings show that bone scintigraphy is a sensitive method to detect skeletal involvement in renal osteodystrophy. (+info)
Renal osteodystrophy in pre-dialysis patients: ethnic difference?
The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether an ethnic difference exists in the incidence of renal osteodystrophy between Asian and Western countries in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. We evaluated bone histology in 58 pre-dialysis patients (28 male, 30 female; mean age: 47.7 years). All patients had bone biopsies with quantitative histomorphometry and serological parameters such as intact PTH, osteocalcin, total alkaline phosphatase, and basal and deferoxamine-stimulated serum aluminum levels. We observed that 91.4% of all evaluated patients showed renal osteodystrophy before the start of dialytic therapy. Mild osteitis fibrosa were observed in 21 patients (36.2%), severe osteitis fibrosa in 5 patients (8.6%), mixed lesions in 7 patients (12.1%), osteomalacia in 6 patients (10.3%), aplastic bone disease in 14 patients (24.1%), and normal bone in 5 patients (8.6%). Among the bone histomorphometric parameters, fibrosis area rate (%) showed the best correlation with intact PTH, and osteocalcin and osteoid area rate (%) with total alkaline phosphatase. Aluminum-related bone disease was not observed. Among patients with aplastic bone disease, only 14.3% showed aluminum deposition of any significance (5% < stainable bone surface aluminum < 25%). In the diabetic patients, aplastic bone disease was most common, but no case was related to aluminum intoxication. In conclusion, the distribution of renal osteodystrophy in our study was different from that of Western countries in pre-dialysis patients. Our patients tended to have more mild-form osteitis fibrosa and normal findings, and less severe-form osteitis fibrosa and aplastic bone disease. Aluminum-related bone disease was not observed. (+info)
Bone mineral density and biochemical markers of bone turnover in patients with predialysis chronic renal failure.
BACKGROUND: Metabolic bone disease might commence early in the course of renal failure. This study therefore examined the frequency and severity of the skeletal changes in predialysis chronic renal failure by measurements of bone mineral density (BMD), biochemical markers of bone turnover (osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, carboxy terminal propeptide of type I collagen, and carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen), parathyroid hormone (PTH), ionized calcium (Ca++), phosphate (P), and vitamin D metabolites. METHODS: The study was performed in 113 patients (male/female: 82/31) with chronic renal diseases [mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 37 ml/min] and in 89 matched, normal control subjects. RESULTS: The patients had significantly (P<0.05) reduced BMD in the spine (-6.3%), the femur (-12.1%), the forearm (-5.7%), and the total body (-4.2%) as compared with the control subjects. Dividing the patients into quartiles according to GFR revealed that BMD decreased with the gradual decline in renal function at all the measured skeletal sites, but was most pronounced in the femur: 0.63+/-0.03, 0.74+/-0.02, 0.77+/-0.02, and 0.82+/-0.03 g/cm2 in each quartile from lowest to highest GFR compared with 0.82+/-0.02 g/cm2 in the control group (P<0.0001). All of the measured bone markers showed increasing plasma levels with the more advanced stages of renal failure. Serum PTH and serum P levels increased, whereas serum Ca++ and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D decreased. BMD Z-scores of the femur and of the forearm correlated to the biochemical markers and to PTH (P<0.05 to P<0.0001). The biochemical markers all showed strong correlations to PTH, also when corrected for the effect of the decline in GFR (r = 0.40 to 0.92, P<0.01 to P< 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Skeletal changes are initiated at an early stage of chronic renal failure, as estimated from reduced BMD and elevated levels of PTH and from the biochemical markers of both bone formation and bone resorption. (+info)
22-Oxacalcitriol ameliorates high-turnover bone and marked osteitis fibrosa in rats with slowly progressive nephritis.
22-Oxacalcitriol ameliorates high-turnover bone and marked osteitis fibrosa in rats with slowly progressive nephritis. BACKGROUND: 22-Oxacalcitriol (OCT) is a unique vitamin D analogue with less calcemic activity than calcitriol, and it effectively suppresses parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion in uremic rats. This study was performed to examine the long-term effect of intravenously administered OCT on high-turnover bone disease in model rats of slowly progressive renal failure. METHODS: Slowly progressive renal failure rats were made by a single injection of glycopeptide isolated from rat renal cortical tissues. At 250 days, glycopeptide-induced nephritis (GN) rats were divided into three groups with the same levels of serum creatinine and PTH, and they received either OCT (0.03 or 0.15 microg/kg body wt) or vehicle given intravenously three times per week for 15 weeks. RESULTS: Renal function of GN rats deteriorated very slowly but progressively, as assessed by the increase of serum creatinine concentration. At sacrifice, serum PTH levels, bone formation markers, bone resorption markers, and fibrosis volume were significantly elevated in vehicle-treated GN rats compared with those of sham-operated rats, suggesting the development of high-turnover bone disease with osteitis fibrosa. In contrast, in the GN-OCT 0.15 microg/kg group, these high PTH levels and high-turnover bone and fibrosis were significantly decreased. Such amelioration of bone abnormalities by OCT was not accompanied by either hypercalcemia or further deterioration of renal function. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that OCT may be a useful and safe agent not only for the suppression of PTH, but also for the amelioration of osteitis fibrosa and high-turnover bone without causing hypercalcemia in chronic dialysis patients. (+info)
Insulin-like growth factor system components in hyperparathyroidism and renal osteodystrophy.
BACKGROUND: The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system plays a key role in regulation of bone formation. In patients with renal osteodystrophy, an elevation of some IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) has been described, but there is no study measuring serum levels of both IGF-I and IGF-II as well as IGFBP-1 to -6 in different forms of renal osteodystrophy and hyperparathyroidism. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we investigated 319 patients with mild (N = 29), moderate (N = 48), preuremic (N = 37), and end-stage renal failure (ESRF; N = 205). The ESRF group was treated by hemodialysis (HD; N = 148), peritoneal dialysis (PD; N = 27), or renal transplantation (RTX; N = 30). As controls without renal failure, we recruited age-matched healthy subjects (N = 87) and patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT; N = 25). Serum levels of total and free IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-1 to -6, and biochemical bone markers including intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP), and osteocalcin (OSC) were measured by specific immunometric assays. IGF system components and bone markers were correlated with clinical and bone histologic findings. Mean values +/- SEM are given. RESULTS: With declining renal function a significant increase was measured for IGFBP-1 (range 7- to 14-fold), IGFBP-2 (3- to 8-fold), IGFBP-3 (1.5- to 3-fold), IGFBP-4 (3- to 19-fold), and IGFBP-6 (8- to 25-fold), whereas IGFBP-5 levels tended to decrease (1.3- to 1. 6-fold). In contrast, serum levels of IGF-I, free IGF-I, and IGF-II remained constant in most patients. Compared with renal failure patients, pHPT patients showed a similar decline in IGFBP-5 levels and less elevated levels of IGFBP-1 (3.5-fold), IGFBP-2 (2-fold), IGFBP-3 (1.2-fold), and IGFBP-6 (4-fold) but no elevation of IGFBP-4 levels. In all subjects, free and total IGF-I levels showed significant negative correlations with IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-4 (that is, inhibitory IGF system components) and significant positive correlations with IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5 (that is, stimulatory IGF system components). A positive correlation was observed between IGF-II and IGFBP-6. ESRF patients with mixed uremic bone disease and histologic evidence for osteopenia revealed significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels of IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-4 but lower IGFBP-5 levels. Histologic parameters of bone formation showed significant positive correlations with serum levels of IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGFBP-5. In contrast, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-4 correlated positively with indices of bone loss. Moreover, dialysis patients with low bone turnover (N = 24) showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower levels of IGFBP-5, PTH, B-ALP, and OSC than patients with high bone turnover. CONCLUSION: Patients with primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism showed lower levels of the putative stimulatory IGFBP-5 but higher levels of IGFBP-1, -2, -3, and -6, whereas total IGF-I and IGF-II levels were not or only moderately increased. The marked increase in serum levels of IGFBP-4 appeared to be characteristic for chronic renal failure. IGFBP-5 correlated with biochemical markers and histologic indices of bone formation in renal osteodystrophy patients and was not influenced by renal function. Therefore, IGFBP-5 may gain significance as a serological marker for osteopenia and low bone turnover in long-term dialysis patients. (+info)
Increased bone strontium levels in hemodialysis patients with osteomalacia.
BACKGROUND: In this study, we report on the association between increased bone strontium levels and the presence of osteomalacia in end-stage renal failure patients treated by hemodialysis. METHODS: We performed a histologic examination and determined the strontium content and strontium/calcium ratios in bone biopsies of 100 hemodialysis patients recruited from various centers all over the world. Aside from the bone strontium concentration, the bone aluminum content was assessed. The bone zinc concentration, a nonrelevant element for bone toxicity, was also measured. RESULTS: Bone strontium levels and bone strontium/calcium ratios were increased in subjects with osteomalacia when compared with those with the other types of renal osteodystrophy. Bone strontium and bone calcium levels correlated with each other. The slope of the linear regression curve correlating these parameters was much steeper in the osteomalacic group (Y = 2.22X - 120) as compared with the other types of renal osteodystrophy (Y = 0.52X - 5.7). Within the group of patients with osteomalacia, bone strontium levels also significantly correlated with the bone aluminum content (r = 0.72, P = 0.018). No such correlation was found for the other types of renal osteodystrophy. The bone zinc concentration of subjects with normal renal function did not differ significantly from the values noted for the various types of renal osteodystrophy taken as separate groups, nor could increased bone zinc concentrations be associated with a particular bone lesion. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate an association between osteomalacia and increased bone strontium concentrations in dialysis patients. Further studies are warranted to establish whether strontium plays either a primary, secondary, or contributive role in the development of the latter type of renal osteodystrophy. (+info)