High dose chemotherapy with busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and etoposide as conditioning regimen for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for patients with acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission.
We explored the combination of busulfan/cyclophosphamide/etoposide as conditioning regimen prior to bone marrow transplantation in 31 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission. The preparative regimen consisted of 16 mg/kg busulfan, 30-60 mg/kg VP-16, and 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide. With a median follow-up of 30.5 months (range, 5-60 months), 25 patients are alive in continuous complete remission. Estimated disease-free survival at 5 years is 80.5%. Death was due to transplant-related toxicity (graft-versus-host disease and cytomegalovirus infection, graft-versus-host disease and pneumonia, sepsis and mucositis, respectively). None of the patients have relapsed. As demonstrated by the results of this analysis, the conditioning regimen busulfan/cyclophosphamide/etoposide is effective and well tolerated in patients with AML in first complete remission. Main nonhematological toxicities were mucositis and hepatotoxicity. The low mortality and relapse rate appears to justify allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for patients with AML in first complete remission who have an HLA-identical donor. Whether this regimen offers a substantial improvement in disease-free and overall survival over presently used regimens warrants further investigation. (+info)
Effective control of Epstein-Barr virus-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with immunochemotherapy. Histiocyte Society.
The familial form of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a lethal disorder. Although the prognosis for Epstein-Barr virus-associated HLH (EBV-HLH) remains uncertain, numerous reports indicate that it can also be fatal in a substantial proportion of cases. We therefore assessed the potential of immunochemotherapy with a core combination of steroids and etoposide to control EBV-HLH in 17 infants and children who met stringent diagnostic criteria for this reactive disorder of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Treatment of life-threatening emergencies was left to the discretion of participating investigators and typically included either intravenous Ig or cyclosporin A (CSA). Five patients (29%) entered complete remission during the induction phase (1 to 2 months), whereas 10 others (57%) required additional treatment to achieve this status. In 2 cases, immunochemotherapy was ineffective, prompting allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Severe but reversible myelosuppression was a common finding; adverse late sequelae were limited to epileptic activity in one child and chronic EBV infection in 2 others. Fourteen of the 17 patients treated with immunochemotherapy have maintained their complete responses for 4+ to 39+ months (median, 15+ months), suggesting a low probability of disease recurrence. These results provide a new perspective on EBV-HLH, showing effective control (and perhaps cure) of the majority of EBV-HLH cases without bone marrow transplantation, using steroids and etoposide, with or without immunomodulatory agents. (+info)
Phase II study of cisplatin and vinorelbine as first-line chemotherapy in patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the activity and toxicity of the combination of cisplatin (80 mg/m2 day 1) and vinorelbine (25 mg/m2 days 1 and 8) in patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix that has not been previously treated with chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty patients with cervical cancer were enrolled onto this study (27 stage IB-III, 23 stage IVB-recurrent). A two-stage optimal Simon design was applied. Thirteen responders of 29 treated patients were required to proceed beyond the first stage, and 28 responders were needed overall. RESULTS: Hematologic toxicity was mild, with neutropenia being the most frequent side effect. Nonhematologic toxicity was frequent but never severe; one patient had grade 3 peripheral neurotoxicity. Objective responses were recorded for 32 patients (64%): 11 patients (22%) achieved a complete response (CR) and 21 patients (42%) achieved a partial response (PR). The response rate was 81.5% in patients with IB-III stage (25.9% CR rate) and 43.5% in patients with IVB-recurrent disease (17.4% CR rate). Responses were seen both in stage IVB patients (one CR and two PRs, for an overall rate of 37.5%) and in patients with recurrent disease (three CRs + four PRs, for an overall rate of 46.7%). CONCLUSION: The combination of cisplatin and vinorelbine is an active regimen in the treatment of patients with early-stage and advanced carcinoma of the uterine cervix. The hematologic and nonhematologic toxicity of this combination is mild. (+info)
Natural history of stage IV epithelial ovarian cancer.
PURPOSE: In this report we present the natural history, prognostic factors, and therapeutic implications of stage IV epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed 192 patients with stage IV EOC as defined in 1985 by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. RESULTS: The site of stage IV-defining disease was cytologically positive pleural effusion in 63 patients, liver in 50 patients, lymph nodes in 26 patients, lung in six patients, other sites in 15 patients, and disease at multiple stage IV-defining metastatic sites in 32 patients. Surgery was performed before chemotherapy in 169 patients; 25 patients (14.8%) were left with only microscopic residual disease or less than 2 cm of macroscopic residual disease. The overall response rate to chemotherapy was 56%; the complete response rate was 18%. The median progression-free survival was 7.1 months, and the median overall survival was 13.4 months. The median overall survival of patients with positive pleural effusions only was 13.4 months as compared with 10.5 months for patients with visceral disease only, but this difference was not statistically significant. The 5-year survival rate was 7.6%, with only six patients surviving more than 5 years. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that two parameters were associated with a shorter survival time: visceral involvement (lung or liver) and diagnosis before 1984. CONCLUSION: Patients with stage IV EOC initially respond to chemotherapy as often as those with less advanced disease, but the long-term prognosis is very poor. The size of residual disease is not a prognostic factor in this group of patients, and, therefore, the role of debulking surgery in these patients needs to be reconsidered. (+info)
Clinical presentation, course, and prognostic factors in lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin's disease and lymphocyte-rich classical Hodgkin's disease: report from the European Task Force on Lymphoma Project on Lymphocyte-Predominant Hodgkin's Disease.
PURPOSE: Recent studies have suggested that lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin's disease (LPHD) is both clinically and pathologically distinct from other forms of Hodgkin's disease, including classical Hodgkin's disease (CHD). However, large-scale clinical studies were lacking. This multicenter, retrospective study investigated the clinical characteristics and course of LPHD patients and lymphocyte-rich classical Hodgkin's disease (LRCHD) patients classified according to morphologic and immunophenotypic criteria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical data and biopsy material of all available cases initially submitted as LPHD were collected from 17 European and American centers, stained, and reclassified by expert pathologists. RESULTS: The 426 assessable cases were reclassified as LPHD (51%), LRCHD (27%), CHD (5%), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (3%), and reactive lesion (3%); 11% of cases were not assessable. Patients with LPHD and LRCHD were predominantly male, with early-stage disease and few risk factors. Patients with LRCHD were significantly older. Survival and failure-free survival rates with adequate therapy were similar for patients with LPHD and LRCHD, and were stage-dependent and not significantly better than stage-comparable results for CHD (German trial data). Twenty-seven percent of relapsing LPHD patients had multiple relapses, which is significantly more than the 5% of relapsing LRCHD patients who had multiple relapses. Lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin's disease patients had significantly superior survival after relapse compared with LRCHD or CHD patients; however, this was partly due to the younger average age of LPHD patients. CONCLUSION: The two subgroups of LPHD and LRCHD bore a close clinical resemblance that was distinct from CHD; the course was similar to that of comparable nodular sclerosis and mixed cellularity patients. Thorough staging is necessary to detect advanced disease in LPHD and LRCHD patients. The question of how to treat such patients, either by reducing treatment intensity or following a "watch and wait" approach, remains unanswered. (+info)
Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma: a clinicopathologic study of 43 patients from the Nebraska Lymphoma Study Group.
PURPOSE: To investigate whether primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMLBL) is a distinct clinicopathologic entity with a more aggressive course than other diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients with CD20-positive DLBL who presented with a mediastinal mass measuring at least 5.0 cm and were treated with curative intent were identified. A control group of 352 patients with nonmediastinal DLBL was selected for comparison. RESULTS: The 43 patients with PMLBL had a male to female ratio of 20:23 and a median age of 42 years. Stage I/II disease was present in 58% of the patients, with only 9% having bone marrow involvement. A complete remission was achieved in 63% of the patients, and the 5-year overall and failure-free survivals were 46% and 38%, respectively. Among the clinical variables, an elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase level, a low performance score, more than one extranodal site, and an intermediate or high International Prognostic Index score were predictive of poor survival. When compared with the DLBL group, a younger median age was the only clinical feature that was significantly different in the PMLBL group. CONCLUSION: The clinical features of PMLBL do not appear to be significantly different from those of nonmediastinal DLBL. Although the younger age of onset, slight female predominance, mediastinal location, and size of the mass may justify the recognition of PMLBL as a clinical syndrome, additional evidence is needed to define it as a distinct disease entity. (+info)
Autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for relapsed or refractory Hodgkin's disease in children and adolescents.
PURPOSE: To determine the treatment outcome and clinical factors that are of prognostic significance for children and adolescents with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin's disease (HD) who received treatment with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-three consecutive children and adolescents 21 years of age or younger with relapsed or refractory HD underwent HSCT. RESULTS: At day 100 after transplantation, 29 patients (55%) were in a complete remission or maintained a continuous complete response, six (11%) had a partial response, and 11 (21%) failed to respond or had progressive disease. The failure-free survival (FFS) at 5 years was 31%, and overall survival was 43%. Twenty-one patients died of progressive HD, and nine died secondary to transplantation-related complications, including two secondary leukemias. Prognostic factors important for FFS were normal pretransplantation lactate dehydrogenase levels (5-year FFS = 42%), compared with patients with elevated LDH levels (5-year FFS = 0%) (P < .001), and disease sensitivity at the time of HSCT with FFS in untreated relapse, sensitive disease, and resistant disease 44%, 35%, and 9%, respectively (P = .06). There was no statistically significant difference in FFS or overall survival between age subgroups that were analyzed (< 13, 13 to 18, 19 to 21) or in comparison with an adult cohort. CONCLUSION: HSCT is an effective treatment modality that can result in long-term cures and should be considered for children and adolescents with relapsed HD. (+info)
Dose-escalation study of docetaxel in combination with mitoxantrone as first-line treatment in patients with metastatic breast cancer.
PURPOSE: To define the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) and the dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of docetaxel in combination with mitoxantrone in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-one chemotherapy-naive patients with MBC (median age, 61 years) were enrolled. Thirty-eight (93%) had performance status (World Health Organization [WHO]) 0, 29 (71%) were postmenopausal, and 21 (51%) had estrogen receptor-negative tumors. Patients received escalated doses of docetaxel (75 to 100 mg/m2) on day 1 and mitoxantrone (8 to 22 mg/m2) on day 8. Treatment was repeated every 3 weeks. RESULTS: A total of 217 chemotherapy cycles were administered. Without recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) support, the MTD1 occurred at the first dose level (docetaxel 75 mg/m2 and mitoxantrone 8 mg/m2); DLTs were febrile neutropenia, grade 4 neutropenia lasting more than 5 days, and grade 3 diarrhea. With prophylactic rhG-CSF, the MTD2 was docetaxel 100 mg/m2 and mitoxantrone 20 mg/m2; DLTs were febrile neutropenia and grade 4 neutropenia. Nine (22%) patients developed neutropenia after the first cycle of treatment. A total of 19 episodes of febrile neutropenia (9% of the cycles) occurred during the whole period of the study; there were no toxic deaths. At high docetaxel (100 mg/m2) and mitoxantrone (> 12 mg/m2) dose levels, a significant decrease of the absolute lymphocyte number was observed; immunophenotyping revealed that all lymphocyte subpopulations were reduced. Grades 2 and 3 neurosensory toxicity occurred in six patients (15%) and one patient (2%), respectively. No cardiac toxicity was observed. Nine complete responses (22%) and 23 partial responses (56%) were achieved (overall response rate, 78%; 95% confidence interval, 62.5% to 88.8%). The median duration of response was 12.5 months, and the median time to tumor progression was 14.5 months. CONCLUSION: The reported combination of docetaxel and mitoxantrone with G-CSF support is a safe, intensified, well-tolerated, and effective regimen as first-line treatment in patients with MBC. (+info)