The effect of increasing vertical dimension of occlusion on facial aesthetics.
AIM: To investigate the effect of increasing the vertical dimension of occlusion on facial aesthetics. SETTING: General practice. METHOD: Questionnaires were sent to 96 patients who had been treated in the practice during the period of July 1998 to December 2000, resulting in an overall 72% response rate. All these patients had had their occlusal vertical dimension increased. Photographs of patients were taken before, during and after treatment. The questionnaire asked their opinion on the effects of the treatment on their facial features. To obtain an objective view to substantiate the opinions of the patients, a panel of five judges reviewed the before and after photographs and filled in their own questionnaires. RESULTS: Of the patients who responded to the questionnaire, 79.7% said they looked younger after the treatment. The panel thought 81.2% of the patients treated whose photographs they reviewed looked younger. CONCLUSION: Increasing the vertical dimension of occlusion can have far reaching effects on facial aesthetics, not just on the peri-oral areas but on the whole face. (+info)
Blindness and total ophthalmoplegia after aesthetic polymethylmethacrylate injection: case report.
Microspheres of polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) are exciting new soft-tissue fillers that are becoming increasing popular for facial rejuvenation. Some reports of side effects of this procedure are basically in respect to dermal reaction, with late-onset granulomatous lesion with giant cells and vacuoles. We report blindness and total ophthalmoplegia after PMMA injection into glabellar area in a healthy woman and review the literature. (+info)
Rejuvenation of the lip with injectables.
As the range of soft tissue augmentation products proliferates, most will be used (with varying degrees of success) to shape and augment the lip. The range of outcomes for this indication depends on the skill of the injector, the anatomy of the patient and the intrinsic properties of the product. Permutations of these interacting factors are infinite and it is the range of combinations that is responsible for the complexity (and fascination) of lip rejuvenation with injectable products. Based on personal experience, the perfect lip is the one that "wows" the patient and makes them happy with the procedure. Individualizing the injection is of paramount importance and should take priority over a formulaic approach that defines each lip injection as identical. This review will discuss some of the factors that should be considered prior to injecting a lip with soft tissue augmentation products. (+info)
Use of hyaluronic acid fillers for the treatment of the aging face.
Hyaluronic acid fillers have become popular soft tissue filler augmentation agents over the past several years. They have helped revolutionize the filler market with a number of new products available for use for our patients. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the characteristics of the HA fillers and to review each of the current products currently available for use in the US. (+info)
Principles of soft tissue augmentation for the aging face.
In the quest for the "ideal" soft tissue filler, many diverse products have been developed. The expanding market of available fillers is a testament that no one product will ideally suit all patients or clinicians. In addition, the challenge of satisfying the criteria of an ideal filler has driven researchers to take a variety of development paths. This has resulted in multiple categories to characterize soft tissue fillers. These fillers are categorized according to: (1) filler material, eg, autologous, natural, synthetic; (2) mechanism of action, eg, void filler, neocollagenesis, fibroblast stimulation; (3) patient type and profile, eg, younger versus older patient, rhytids versus "sinking and sagging" skin; or (4) durability of treatment effects, eg, temporary, semi-permanent, or permanent. Although strategies for soft tissue augmentation may be quite diverse, strategies should share a universal goal to address fat redistribution (atrophy and hypertrophy), the primary underlying morphological cause of facial aging. To accomplish this, volumizers are now available that are injected more deeply, resulting in the restoration of supportive structure and foundation. These can be used in combination with other products that are used more superficially for smoothing skin surfaces. As numerous soft tissue fillers enter the market, mechanisms and injection techniques become more divergent, and therefore require that the dermatologist and cosmetic surgeon receive adequate training to use products safely and effectively. This manuscript provides an overview of soft tissue fillers and their proper use. (+info)
Very small embryonic-like (VSEL) stem cells in adult organs and their potential role in rejuvenation of tissues and longevity.
Standard guidelines for the use of dermal fillers.
Currently used fillers vary greatly in their sources, efficacy duration and site of deposition; detailed knowledge of these properties is essential for administering them. Indications for fillers include facial lines (wrinkles, folds), lip enhancement, facial deformities, depressed scars, periocular melanoses, sunken eyes, dermatological diseases-angular cheilitis, scleroderma, AIDS lipoatrophy, earlobe plumping, earring ptosis, hand, neck, decollete rejuvenation. PHYSICIANS' QUALIFICATIONS: Any qualified dermatologist may use fillers after receiving adequate training in the field. This may be obtained either during postgraduation or at any workshop dedicated to the subject of fillers. The physicians should have a thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the area designated to receive an injection of fillers and the aesthetic principles involved. They should also have a thorough knowledge of the chemical nature of the material of the filler, its longevity, injection techniques, and any possible side effects. FACILITY: Fillers can be administered in the dermatologist's minor procedure room. PREOPERATIVE COUNSELING AND INFORMED CONSENT: Detailed counseling with respect to the treatment, desired effects, and longevity of the filler should be discussed with the patient. Patients should be given brochures to study and adequate opportunity to seek information. Detailed consent forms need to be completed by the patients. A consent form should include the type of filler, longevity expected and possible postoperative complications. Preoperative photography should be carried out. Choice of the filler depends on the site, type of defect, results needed, and the physician's experience. Injection technique and volume depend on the filler and the physician's preference, as outlined in these guidelines. (+info)