Reduced differentiation potential of primary MyoD-/- myogenic cells derived from adult skeletal muscle.
To gain insight into the regeneration deficit of MyoD-/- muscle, we investigated the growth and differentiation of cultured MyoD-/- myogenic cells. Primary MyoD-/- myogenic cells exhibited a stellate morphology distinct from the compact morphology of wild-type myoblasts, and expressed c-met, a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed in satellite cells. However, MyoD-/- myogenic cells did not express desmin, an intermediate filament protein typically expressed in cultured myoblasts in vitro and myogenic precursor cells in vivo. Northern analysis indicated that proliferating MyoD-/- myogenic cells expressed fourfold higher levels of Myf-5 and sixfold higher levels of PEA3, an ETS-domain transcription factor expressed in newly activated satellite cells. Under conditions that normally induce differentiation, MyoD-/- cells continued to proliferate and with delayed kinetics yielded reduced numbers of predominantly mononuclear myocytes. Northern analysis revealed delayed induction of myogenin, MRF4, and other differentiation-specific markers although p21 was upregulated normally. Expression of M-cadherin mRNA was severely decreased whereas expression of IGF-1 was markedly increased in MyoD-/- myogenic cells. Mixing of lacZ-labeled MyoD-/- cells and wild-type myoblasts revealed a strict autonomy in differentiation potential. Transfection of a MyoD-expression cassette restored cytomorphology and rescued the differentiation deficit. We interpret these data to suggest that MyoD-/- myogenic cells represent an intermediate stage between a quiescent satellite cell and a myogenic precursor cell. (+info)
Lack of regulation in the heart forming region of avian embryos.
The ability to regenerate a heart after ablation of cardiogenic mesoderm has been demonstrated in early stage fish and amphibian embryos but this type of regulation of the heart field has not been seen in avians or mammals. The regulative potential of the cardiogenic mesoderm was examined in avian embryos and related to the spatial expression of genes implicated in early cardiogenesis. With the identification of early cardiac regulators such as bmp-2 and nkx-2.5, it is now possible to reconcile classical embryological studies with molecular mechanisms of cardiac lineage determination in vivo. The most anterior lateral embryonic cells were identified as the region that becomes the heart and removal of all or any subset of these cells resulted in the loss of corresponding cardiac structures. In addition, removal of the lateral heart forming mesoderm while leaving the lateral endoderm intact also results in loss of cardiac structures. Thus the medial anterior mesoderm cannot be recruited into the heart lineage in vivo even in the presence of potentially cardiac inducing endoderm. In situ analysis demonstrated that genes involved in early events of cardiogenesis such as bone morphogenetic protein 2 (bmp-2) and nkx-2.5 are expressed coincidentally with the mapped far lateral heart forming region. The activin type IIa receptor (actR-IIa) is a potential mediator of BMP signaling since it is expressed throughout the anterior mesoderm with the highest level of expression occurring in the lateral prospective heart cells. The posterior boundary of actR-IIa is consistent with the posterior boundary of nkx-2.5 expression, supporting a model whereby ActR-IIa is involved in restricting the heart forming region to an anterior subset of lateral cells exposed to BMP-2. Analysis of the cardiogenic potential of the lateral plate mesoderm posterior to nkx-2.5 and actR-IIa expression demonstrated that these cells are not cardiogenic in vitro and that removal of these cells from the embryo does not result in loss of heart tissue in vivo. Thus, the region of the avian embryo that will become the heart is defined medially, laterally, and posteriorly by nkx-2.5 gene expression. Removal of all or part of the nkx-2.5 expressing region results in the loss of corresponding heart structures, demonstrating the inability of the chick embryo to regenerate cardiac tissue in vivo at stages after nkx-2.5 expression is initiated. (+info)
Expression and developmental regulation of the Hydra-RFamide and Hydra-LWamide preprohormone genes in Hydra: evidence for transient phases of head formation.
Hydra magnipapillata has three distinct genes coding for preprohormones A, B, and C, each yielding a characteristic set of Hydra-RFamide (Arg-Phe-NH2) neuropeptides, and a fourth gene coding for a preprohormone that yields various Hydra-LWamide (Leu-Trp-NH2) neuropeptides. Using a whole-mount double-labeling in situ hybridization technique, we found that each of the four genes is specifically expressed in a different subset of neurons in the ectoderm of adult Hydra. The preprohormone A gene is expressed in neurons of the tentacles, hypostome (a region between tentacles and mouth opening), upper gastric region, and peduncle (an area just above the foot). The preprohormone B gene is exclusively expressed in neurons of the hypostome, whereas the preprohormone C gene is exclusively expressed in neurons of the tentacles. The Hydra-LWamide preprohormone gene is expressed in neurons located in all parts of Hydra with maxima in tentacles, hypostome, and basal disk (foot). Studies on animals regenerating a head showed that the prepro-Hydra-LWamide gene is expressed first, followed by the preprohormone A and subsequently the preprohormone C and the preprohormone B genes. This sequence of events could be explained by a model based on positional values in a morphogen gradient. Our head-regeneration experiments also give support for transient phases of head formation: first tentacle-specific preprohormone C neurons (frequently associated with a small tentacle bud) appear at the center of the regenerating tip, which they are then replaced by hypostome-specific preprohormone B neurons. Thus, the regenerating tip first attains a tentacle-like appearance and only later this tip develops into a hypostome. In a developing bud of Hydra, tentacle-specific preprohormone C neurons and hypostome-specific preprohormone B neurons appear about simultaneously in their correct positions, but during a later phase of head development, additional tentacle-specific preprohormone C neurons appear as a ring at the center of the hypostome and then disappear again. Nerve-free Hydra consisting of only epithelial cells do not express the preprohormone A, B, or C or the LWamide preprohormone genes. These animals, however, have a normal phenotype, showing that the preprohormone A, B, and C and the LWamide genes are not essential for the basic pattern formation of Hydra. (+info)
Immunocytochemical and morphological evidence for intracellular self-repair as an important contributor to mammalian hair cell recovery.
Although recent studies have provided evidence for hair cell regeneration in mammalian inner ears, the mechanism underlying this regenerative process is still under debate. Here we report immunocytochemical, histological, electron microscopic, and autoradiographic evidence that, in cultured postnatal rat utricles, a substantial number of hair cells can survive gentamicin insult even their stereocilia are lost. These partially damaged hair cells can survive for a prolonged time and regrow the stereocilia. Although the number of stereocilia-bearing hair cells increases over time after gentamicin insult, hair cell and supporting cell numbers remain essentially unchanged. Tritiated thymidine autoradiography and bromodeoxyuridine immunocytochemistry of the cultures demonstrate that cell proliferation in the sensory epithelium is very limited and is far below the number of recovered hair cells. Furthermore, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated UTP nick end labeling analysis indicates that gentamicin-induced apoptosis in the sensory epithelium occurs mainly during a 2 d treatment period, and additional cell death is minimal 2-11 d after treatment. Considered together, intracellular repair of partially damaged hair cells can be an important contributor to spontaneous hair cell recovery in mammalian inner ears. (+info)
Alteration of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizations in porcine coronary arteries with regenerated endothelium.
The present study was designed to test the ability of regenerated endothelium to evoke endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizations. Hyperpolarizations induced by serotonin and bradykinin were compared in isolated porcine coronary arteries with native or regenerated endothelium, 4 weeks after balloon endothelial denudation. The experiments were performed in the presence of inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (Nomega-nitro-L-arginine) and cyclooxygenase (indomethacin). The transmembrane potential was measured using conventional glass microelectrodes. Smooth muscle cells from coronary arteries with regenerated endothelium were depolarized in comparison with control coronary arteries from the same hearts. Spontaneous membrane potential oscillations of small amplitude or spikes were observed in some of these arteries but never in arteries with native endothelium. In coronary arteries from control pigs, both serotonin and bradykinin induced concentration-dependent hyperpolarizations. In the presence of ketanserin, 10 micromol/L serotonin induced a transient hyperpolarization in control coronary arteries. Four weeks after balloon denudation, the response to serotonin was normal in arteries with native endothelium, but the hyperpolarization was significantly lower in coronary arteries with regenerated endothelium. In control arteries, the endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization obtained with bradykinin (30 nmol/L) was reproducible. Four weeks after balloon denudation, comparable hyperpolarizations were obtained in coronary arteries with native endothelium. By contrast, in arteries with regenerated endothelium, the hyperpolarization to bradykinin became voltage-dependent. In the most depolarized cells, the hyperpolarization to bradykinin was augmented. The changes in resting membrane potential and the alteration in endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizations observed in the coronary arteries with regenerated endothelium may contribute to the reduced response to serotonin and the unchanged relaxation to bradykinin described previously. (+info)
The homeodomain protein IDX-1 increases after an early burst of proliferation during pancreatic regeneration.
Islet duodenal homeobox 1 (IDX-1/PF-1/STF-1/PDX-1), a homeodomain protein that transactivates the insulin promoter, has been shown by targeted gene ablation to be required for pancreatic development. After 90% pancreatectomy (Px), the adult pancreas regenerates in a process recapitulating embryonic development, starting with a burst of proliferation in the epithelium of the common pancreatic duct. In this model, IDX-1 mRNA was detected by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in total RNA from isolated common pancreatic ducts at levels 10% of those of isolated islets. The IDX-1 mRNA levels were not significantly different for common pancreatic ducts of Px, sham Px, and unoperated rats and did not change with time after surgery. By immunoblot analysis, IDX-1 protein was only faintly detected in these ducts 1 and 7 days after Px or sham Px but was easily detected at 2 and 3 days after Px. Similarly, IDX-1 immunostaining was barely detectable in sham or unoperated ducts but was strong in ducts at 2-3 days after Px. The increase of IDX-1 immunostaining followed that of BrdU incorporation (proliferation). These results indicate a posttranscriptional regulation of the IDX-1 expression in ducts. In addition, islets isolated 3-7 d after Px showed higher IDX-1 protein expression than control islets. Thus, in pancreatic regeneration IDX-1 is upregulated in newly divided ductal cells as well as in islets. The timing of enhanced expression of IDX-1 implies that IDX-1 is not important in the initiation of regeneration but may be involved in the differentiation of ductal cells to beta-cells. (+info)
Hedgehog is required for activation of engrailed during regeneration of fragmented Drosophila imaginal discs.
Surgically fragmented Drosophila appendage primordia (imaginal discs) engage in wound healing and pattern regulation during short periods of in vivo culture. Prothoracic leg disc fragments possess exceptional regulative capacity, highlighted by the ability of anterior cells to convert to posterior identity and establish a novel posterior compartment. This anterior/posterior conversion violates developmental lineage restrictions essential for normal growth and patterning of the disc, and thus provides an ideal model for understanding how cells change fate during epimorphic pattern regulation. Here we present evidence that the secreted signal encoded by hedgehog directs anterior/posterior conversion by activating the posterior-specific transcription factor engrailed in regulating anterior cells. In the absence of hedgehog activity, prothoracic leg disc fragments fail to undergo anterior/posterior conversion, but can still regenerate missing anterior pattern elements. We suggest that hedgehog-independent regeneration within the anterior compartment (termed integration) is mediated by the positional cues encoded by wingless and decapentaplegic. Taken together, our results provide a novel mechanistic interpretation of imaginal disc pattern regulation and permit speculation that similar mechanisms could govern appendage regeneration in other organisms. (+info)
Transforming growth factor-beta-induced upregulation of transforming growth factor-beta receptor expression in pancreatic regeneration.
The transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) signaling pathway is one important player in the regulation of extracellular matrix turnover and cell proliferation in epithelial regeneration. We used cerulein-induced pancreatitis in rats as a model to investigate the regulation of TGFbeta receptor type I and type II expression on protein and messenger RNA level during regeneration. In the regenerating pancreas, mRNA levels of TGFbeta receptor I and II were significantly increased with a maximum after 2 days. On protein level, expression of TGFbeta receptor II was significantly increased after three to 3-5 days. This elevated expression could be inhibited by neutralizing the endogenous biological activity of TGFbeta1 with a specific antibody. In cultured pancreatic epithelial cells, TGFbeta1 reduced cell proliferation as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Furthermore the transcript levels of TGFbeta1 as well as mRNA and protein concentrations of type I and type II receptor increased during TGFbeta stimulation in vitro. These results indicate that epithelial pancreatic cells contribute to the enhanced TGFbeta1 synthesis during pancreatic regeneration by an autocrine mechanism. TGFbeta1, furthermore, upregulates the expression of its own receptors during the regenerative process, thereby contributing to the increase of the TGFbeta-induced cellular responses. (+info)