Excimer laser ophthalmic surgery: evaluation of a new technology.
The aim of this article is to provide information and an overview of the potential risks and benefits of excimer laser surgery, a new and promising technique in ophthalmic surgery. Although this review concentrates on the use of the laser for refractive purposes, novel therapeutic techniques are also discussed. It is hoped that this will enable general practitioners, optometrists and physicians to provide appropriate advice and counselling for patients. (+info)
Recent advances in refractive surgery.
Refractive errors are some of the most common ophthalmic abnormalities world-wide and are associated with significant morbidity. Tremendous advances in treating refractive errors have occurred over the past 20 years. The arrival of the excimer laser has allowed a level of accuracy in modifying the cornea that was unattainable before. Although refractive surgery is generally safe and effective, it does carry some risks. Careful patient selection, meticulous surgical technique and frequent follow-up can avoid most complications. The experience of a surgical team can also affect the outcome and the incidence of complications. The future should bring continued improvement in outcomes, fewer complications and exciting new options for treating refractive errors. (+info)
The measurement of patient-reported outcomes of refractive surgery: the refractive status and vision profile.
PURPOSE: To develop a questionnaire, the Refractive Status and Vision Profile (RSVP), to assess health-related quality of life associated with refractive error and its correction. METHODS: The published literature on patient report of visual and overall function was reviewed, and the RSVP was self-administered by 550 participants with refractive error. Cross-sectional validation was performed using standard psychometric techniques. The responsiveness of the RSVP to surgical intervention was assessed prospectively in a subset of 176 patients. The principal outcomes measures were scores on the overall RSVP scale (S) and on 8 RSVP subscales (functioning, driving, concern, expectations, symptoms, glare, optical problems, problems with corrective lenses). RESULTS: The RSVP (S) and its subscales demonstrated very good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha, 0.70-0.93). S and several subscale scores were independently associated with satisfaction with vision and were more correlated with satisfaction with vision than with either visual acuity or refractive error. Higher refractive error was associated with lower scores on S and on 5 subscales. In the prospective surgical cohort, 15% of patients had some worsening in their total RSVP score; however, substantial variation was seen in the individual subscales where worsening ranged from 7% (problems with corrective lenses) to 41% (driving). The effect size (measure of responsiveness) of the RSVP and most of its subscales was very high. Approximately 14% of patients had significant worsening in 3 or more subscales, and this outcome was found to be independently associated with being dissatisfied with vision following surgery (OR, 5.84; 95% CI, 1.88, 8.13). CONCLUSIONS: The RSVP has been validated as a questionnaire that measures patient-reported quality of life related to refractive error and its correction. It is responsive to surgical intervention and provides important information regarding patient outcomes not available from standard clinical measurements. (+info)
Partial flap during laser in-situ keratomileusis: pathogenesis and timing of retreatment.
PURPOSE: To report the timing of retreatment and clinical outcomes in patients with a partial corneal flap during laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK), and to describe the causes of this complication. METHODS: Retrospective review of case records of four patients (4 eyes) who had a partial corneal flap during LASIK. RESULTS: The mean age of the four patients was 23 +/- 4.7 years, and mean preoperative spherical equivalent (SE) refraction was -9.1 +/- 3.1 D (range, -5.5 to -13 D). A 160 microns corneal flap was attempted during the initial treatment. Retreatment with a 180 microns corneal flap was performed at a mean of 5.1 +/- 1.6 weeks (range, 4 to 7.5 weeks) after the initial procedure. There were no intraoperative complications during retreatment. Post-LASIK mean SE refraction was -1.0 +/- 1.1 D (range, +0.38 to -2.0 D), after a mean follow up of 19 +/- 15.7 weeks (range, 7 to 42 weeks). Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity decreased in one eye from 6/5 to 6/6 and was maintained in the others. CONCLUSION: LASIK retreatment can be performed as early as one month after a partial flap, if the refraction is stable and a thicker corneal flap is created. (+info)
Overview of refractive surgery.
Patients with myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism can now reduce or eliminate their dependence on contact lenses and eyeglasses through refractive surgery that includes radial keratotomy (RK), photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), laser thermal keratoplasty (LTK) and intrastromal corneal rings (ICR). Since the approval of the excimer laser in 1995, the popularity of RK has declined because of the superior outcomes from PRK and LASIK. In patients with low-to-moderate myopia, PRK produces stable and predictable results with an excellent safety profile. LASIK is also efficacious, predictable and safe, with the additional advantages of rapid vision recovery and minimal pain. LASIK has rapidly become the most widely performed refractive surgery, with high patient and surgeon satisfaction. Noncontact Holium: YAG LTK provides satisfactory correction in patients with low hyperopia. ICR offers patients with low myopia the potential advantage of removal if the vision outcome is unsatisfactory. Despite the current widespread advertising and media attention about laser refractive surgery, not all patients are good candidates for this surgery. Family physicians should be familiar with the different refractive surgeries and their potential complications. (+info)
Laser refractive surgery: technological advance and tissue response.
Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), using an excimer laser, are the currently popular techniques of correcting refractive errors. Since these techniques work by selective ablation of corneal stroma, the tissue healing response plays a great role in the ultimate outcome of surgery. Also, various methods of wound healing modulation can be used to achieve better results. While these procedures do lead to a decrease in dioptric power and increase in unaided visual acuity, higher visual functions like contrast sensitivity can sometimes be compromised after the surgery. (+info)
Artificial cornea: towards a synthetic onlay for correction of refractive error.
Synthetic onlays that are implanted onto the surface of the cornea have the potential to become an alternative to spectacles and contact lenses for the correction of refractive error. A successful corneal onlay is dependent on development of a biocompatible polymer material that will maintain a healthy cornea after implantation and that will promote growth of corneal epithelial cells over the onlay, and development of a method for attachment of the onlay with minimal surgical invasiveness. The ideal onlay should be made of a material that is highly permeable yet has sufficient surface characteristics to stimulate stable and firm attachment of the corneal epithelium over the onlay. Recent research indicates that collagen I coated polymer materials that mimic the basement membrane of the corneal epithelium promote the most favorable growth of epithelial cells in vivo in comparison to wholly biological or synthetic materials. (+info)
Keratocyte apoptosis and corneal antioxidant enzyme activities after refractive corneal surgery.
PURPOSE: Refractive corneal surgery induces keratocyte apoptosis and generates reactive oxygen radicals (ROS) in the cornea. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the correlation between keratocyte apoptosis and corneal antioxidant enzyme activities after different refractive surgical procedures in rabbits. METHODS: Rabbits were divided into six groups. All groups were compared with the control group (Group 1), after epithelial scraping (Group 2), epithelial scrape and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) (traditional PRK: Group 3), transepithelial PRK (Group 4), creation of a corneal flap with microkeratome (Group 5) and laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK, Group 6). Terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick-end labelling assay (to detect DNA fragmentation in situ) and light microscopy were used to detect apoptosis in rabbit eyes. Glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities of the corneal tissues were measured with spectrophotometric methods. RESULTS: Corneal Gpx and SOD activities decreased significantly in all groups when compared with the control group (P<0.05) and groups 2, 3 and 6 showed a significantly higher amount of keratocyte apoptosis (P<0.05). Not only a negative correlation was observed between corneal SOD activity and keratocyte apoptosis (cc: -0.3648) but Gpx activity also showed negative correlation with keratocyte apoptosis (cc: -0.3587). CONCLUSION: The present study illustrates the negative correlation between keratocyte apoptosis and corneal antioxidant enzyme activities. This finding suggests that ROS may be partly responsible for keratocyte apoptosis after refractive surgery. (+info)