Osteoarthritis and risk of falls, rates of bone loss, and osteoporotic fractures. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between osteoarthritis (OA), as defined by radiographic evidence and self report, and osteoporotic fractures, falls, and bone loss in a cohort of elderly white women. METHODS: A cohort of 5,552 elderly women from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures was followed up prospectively for a mean of 7.4 years. Self-reported, physician-diagnosed OA was recorded at interview, and radiologic OA of the hip and hand were defined from pelvis and hand radiographs obtained at baseline by validated techniques. Prevalent and incident vertebral fractures were detected by vertebral morphometry, and data on incident fractures and falls were collected by postcard surveys; fractures were confirmed by radiography. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured on 2 occasions at the hip, lumbar spine, and calcaneus, and rates of bone loss were calculated. RESULTS: Women with radiographic hip OA had a reduced risk of recurrent falls in the first year (relative risk [RR] 0.7, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.5-0.95). However, those with self-reported OA had an increased risk of falls (RR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.5). Radiographic hip OA was associated with reduced bone loss in the femoral neck compared with controls (mean +/- SD -0.29+/-0.09%/year versus -0.51+/-0.03%/year; P = 0.018). However, radiographic hip OA showed nonsignificant trends toward increased bone loss at the calcaneus and lumbar spine. There was no significant association between self-reported OA or radiographic hand OA with bone loss. No definition of OA was associated with incident nonvertebral fracture, hip fracture, or vertebral fracture. CONCLUSION: Despite having increased BMD compared with controls, subjects with OA did not have a significantly reduced risk of osteoporotic fracture, although there was a trend toward a reduced risk of femoral neck fractures in subjects with severe radiographic OA. The failure of the observed increase in BMD to translate into a reduced fracture risk may be due, in part, to the number and type of falls sustained by subjects with OA. Patients with OA should not be considered to be at a lower risk of fracture than the general population. Physicians should be aware that a high BMD in patients with OA may be falsely reassuring. (+info)
Morbidity in reflex sympathetic dystrophy.
Reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD), an unusual diagnosis in general paediatrics, is well recognised by paediatric rheumatologists. This study reports the presentation and the clinical course of 46 patients (35 female, age range 8-15.2) with RSD. The patients saw professionals from an average of 2.3 specialties (range 1-5). Twenty five (54%) had a history of trauma. Median time to diagnosis was 12 weeks (range 1-130). Many children had multiple investigations and treatments. Once diagnosis was made, treatment followed with physiotherapy and analgesics. Median time to recovery was seven weeks (range 1-140), with 27.5% relapsing. Nine children required assessment by the child and adolescent psychiatry team. This disease, though rare, has significant morbidity and it is therefore important to raise clinicians' awareness of RSD in childhood. Children with the condition may then be recognised and referred for appropriate management earlier, and spared unnecessary investigations and treatments which may exacerbate the condition. (+info)
Reflex sympathetic dystrophy in hypophosphataemic osteomalacia with femoral neck fracture: a case report.
We report a male patient who presented with suspicion of skeletal metastases based upon an abnormal 99-mTc bone scan, which showed increased uptake at both femoral heads, left femoral neck, and several ribs. The images also suggested reflex sympathetic dystrophy, subcapital fracture of the left femur, and rib fractures. A diagnosis of hypophosphataemic osteomalacia was finally made. (+info)
Pain relief in complex regional pain syndrome due to spinal cord stimulation does not depend on vasodilation.
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is known to relieve pain in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and, in general, to cause vasodilation. The vasodilatory effect of SCS is hypothesized to be secondary to inhibition of sympathetically mediated vasoconstriction, or through antidromic impulses resulting in release of vasoactive substances. The aim of the present study was to assess whether pain relief in CRPS after SCS is, in fact, dependent on vasodilation. In addition, we tried to determine which of the potential mechanisms may cause the vasodilatory effect that is generally found after SCS. METHODS: Twenty-four of 36 patients with unilateral CRPS responded to the test of SCS. Twenty-two of these 24 responders (hand, n = 14; foot, n = 8) who had undergone previous sympathectomy were enrolled for the study. In addition, 20 control subjects (10 controls for each extremity) were studied. By means of laser Doppler flowmetry, the skin microcirculation of the patients was measured bilaterally while the SCS system was switched off and while it was activated. Control subjects (n = 20) were tested once only. The ratio of the rest flow at heart level and the dependent position was defined as the vasoconstriction index. RESULTS: Both in affected hands and feet, patients were found to have lower vasoconstriction indices (P < 0.01) as compared with controls, indicating a decreased sympathetic tone. Applying SCS did not result in any microcirculatory change as compared with baseline or the contralateral clinically unaffected side. CONCLUSIONS: The current study failed to show that SCS influences skin microcirculation in patients with CRPS and a low sympathetic tone. Therefore, we may conclude that pain relief in CRPS due to SCS is possible without vasodilation. Because sympathetic activity was greatly decreased in our patients, these results support the hypothesis that the vasodilation that is normally found with SCS is due to an inhibitory effect on sympathetically maintained vasoconstriction. (+info)
Spinal cord stimulation in patients with chronic reflex sympathetic dystrophy.
BACKGROUND: Chronic reflex sympathetic dystrophy (also called the complex regional pain syndrome) is a painful, disabling disorder for which there is no proven treatment. In observational studies, spinal cord stimulation has reduced the pain associated with the disorder. METHODS: We performed a randomized trial involving patients who had had reflex sympathetic dystrophy for at least six months. Thirty-six patients were assigned to receive treatment with spinal cord stimulation plus physical therapy, and 18 were assigned to receive physical therapy alone. The spinal cord stimulator was implanted only if a test stimulation was successful. We assessed the intensity of pain (on a visual-analogue scale from 0 cm [no pain] to 10 cm [very severe pain]), the global perceived effect (on a scale from 1 [worst ever] to 7 [best ever]), functional status, and the health-related quality of life. RESULTS: The test stimulation of the spinal cord was successful in 24 patients; the other 12 patients did not receive implanted stimulators. In an intention-to-treat analysis, the group assigned to receive spinal cord stimulation plus physical therapy had a mean reduction of 2.4 cm in the intensity of pain at six months, as compared with an increase of 0.2 cm in the group assigned to receive physical therapy alone (P<0.001 for the comparison between the two groups). In addition, the proportion of patients with a score of 6 ("much improved") for the global perceived effect was much higher in the spinal cord stimulation group than in the control group (39 percent vs. 6 percent, P=0.01). There was no clinically important improvement in functional status. The health-related quality of life improved only in the 24 patients who actually underwent implantation of a spinal cord stimulator. Six of the 24 patients had complications that required additional procedures, including removal of the device in 1 patient. CONCLUSIONS: In carefully selected patients with chronic reflex sympathetic dystrophy, electrical stimulation of the spinal cord can reduce pain and improve the health-related quality of life. (+info)
Intrathecal baclofen for the treatment of dystonia in patients with reflex sympathetic dystrophy.
BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Patients with reflex sympathetic dystrophy (also known as the complex regional pain syndrome) may have dystonia, which is often unresponsive to treatment. Some forms of dystonia respond to the intrathecal administration of baclofen, a specific gamma-aminobutyric acid-receptor (type B) agonist that inhibits sensory input to the neurons of the spinal cord. We evaluated this treatment in seven women who had reflex sympathetic dystrophy with multifocal or generalized tonic dystonia. First, we performed a double-blind, randomized, controlled crossover trial of bolus intrathecal injections of 25, 50, and 75 microg of baclofen and placebo. Changes in the severity of dystonia were assessed by the woman and by an investigator after each injection. In the second phase of the study, six of the women received a subcutaneous pump for continuous intrathecal administration of baclofen and were followed for 0.5 to 3 years. RESULTS: In six women, bolus injections of 50 and 75 microg of baclofen resulted in complete or partial resolution of focal dystonia of the hands but little improvement in dystonia of the legs. During continuous therapy, three women regained normal hand function, and two of these three women regained the ability to walk (one only indoors). In one woman who received continuous therapy, the pain and violent jerks disappeared and the dystonic posturing of the arm decreased. In two women the spasms or restlessness of the legs decreased, without any change in the dystonia. CONCLUSIONS: In some patients, the dystonia associated with reflex sympathetic dystrophy responds markedly to intrathecal baclofen. (+info)
Diagnosing sensory abnormalities with either normal values or values from contralateral skin: comparison of two approaches in complex regional pain syndrome I.
BACKGROUND: To diagnose sensory abnormalities, patient values can be compared with values of the general population (absolute approach) or to values measured at contralateral homologous skin (relative approach). The current study gives normal values for both approaches and compares the advantages of each method by applying the technique to patients with complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I). METHODS: In 50 healthy control subjects, sensory and pain thresholds were measured for pressure, warmth, and cold on both wrists and both feet. In 53 patients with unilateral CRPS I (33 hand, 20 foot), the same assessments were conducted twice, at an interval of 1 month. RESULTS: In control subjects, contralateral homologous sides have approximately the same sensitivity, supporting the validity of the relative approach in patients. Hypoesthesia and allodynia can be diagnosed by either the absolute or relative approach, whereas hyperesthesia and hypoalgesia can only be identified with the relative approach. The two approaches obtain different results in 20% of cases. Age, gender, and subject criteria may influence the absolute but not the relative approach. Both approaches are comparable with regard to reproducibility. Frequency distributions of sensory abnormalities in chronic CRPS I are presented. The most frequent diagnoses were cold allodynia and mechanical hypoesthesia and allodynia. CONCLUSIONS: To divide sensory characteristics into a binary classification of "normal" and "abnormal," the relative approach is the best choice, with the exception of cases in which the contralateral homologous side is absent or affected by disease. The authors recommend the relative approach for both research and clinical purposes. (+info)
Acceptance of the different denominations for reflex sympathetic dystrophy.
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the real impact in the medical literature of the different denominations for reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD). METHODS: A search was performed through the Medline database (WinSPIRS, SilverPlatter International, NS), from 1995 to 1999, including the following descriptors: RSD, complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), CRPS type I, algodystrophy, Sudeck, shoulder-hand syndrome, transient osteoporosis, causalgia, and CRPS type II. RESULTS: The descriptor RSD was detected in 576 references, algodystrophy in 54, transient osteoporosis in 42, CRPS type I in 24, Sudeck in 16, and shoulder-hand syndrome in 11. One hundred records were obtained for the descriptor causalgia and five for CRPS type II. The descriptor RSD was detected in the title of 262 references, algodystrophy in 29, transient osteoporosis in 29, CRPS type I in 15, Sudeck in 3, shoulder-hand syndrome in 5, causalgia in 17, and CRPS type II in 3 references. CONCLUSIONS: The new CRPS terminology has not effectively replaced the old one. RSD and causalgia are the most used denominations. (+info)