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(1/45) Terminologia anatomica: new terminology for the new anatomist.

Over many years, anatomical terminology has been the subject of much controversy and disagreement. Previously, the International Anatomical Nomenclature Committee has been responsible for the production of six editions of Nomina Anatomica. In 1989 a new committee, the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT), was created by its parent body, the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA). FCAT has worked for 9 years and published Terminologia Anatomica (TA) in 1998. FCAT's aim has been to democratize the terminology and make it the internationally accepted, living language of anatomy. The worldwide adoption of the same terminology would eliminate national differences, which were causing extreme confusion in instances where the same structure was known by several names. The new terminology is thus the result of worldwide consultation and contains Latin and equivalent English terms. It is indexed in Latin and English and contains an index of eponyms in order to find the correct non-eponymous term. The future goal of FCAT is to continue to improve the terminology-new structures are described, different terms come into use, and the terminology needs to be expanded to include terms used by clinicians for structures that currently do not appear in the list. Future versions of the terminology must accommodate the needs of all who use it, both in the clinical and scientific worlds.  (+info)

(2/45) INTRODUCTION TO CHINESE MEDICAL LITERATURE.

The history of medicine in China is divided into four periods, from about 2700 B.C. to the present. Brief descriptions of standard works of these periods (e.g. Pen-Ts'ao, Nei Ching, Nan Ching, Shang Han Lun, Ch'in K'ue Yao Lueh, Chai I Ching, Chou Hou Pei Chi Fang, Mo Ching, Ming I Pieh Lu, Ch'ao Shih Pin Yuan, Chien Chin Yao Fang, Wai T'ai Pi Yao, Hsi Yuan Lu, Pen-Ts'ao Kang-Mu, etc.) are given. The latter part of the paper deals with the state of modern medical research and literature in Mainland China, where equal emphasis is placed on the practice of both traditional Chinese and Western medicine in the treatment of diseases, thus resulting in a new era in Chinese medical history. This is based on the information obtainable in Hong Kong. Information about medical developments in Taiwan is readily available elsewhere and so has been omitted.  (+info)

(3/45) SELECTED LIST OF BOOKS AND JOURNALS FOR THE SMALL MEDICAL LIBRARY.

This list of 358 books and 123 journals is intended as a selection aid for the small library of a hospital, medical society, clinic, or similar organization. Books and journals are arranged by subject, with the books followed by an author index, and the journals by an alphabetical title listing.  (+info)

(4/45) Systematic comparison of four sources of drug information regarding adjustment of dose for renal function.

OBJECTIVE: To compare advice on dosage adjustment for renal impairment provided by four commonly used secondary pharmacotherapeutic sources. DESIGN: Systematic comparison of the definitions of renal impairment, recommendations for dosage adjustment, and the evidence in support of these recommendations in four information sources. DATA SOURCES: British National Formulary, Martindale: the Complete Drug Reference, American Hospital Formulary System Drug Information, and Drug Prescribing in Renal Failure. REVIEW METHODS: Two reviewers independently extracted data on recommendations for dosage adjustment for impaired renal function of 100 drugs often used in our hospital. RESULTS: The four sources differed in their recommendations for adjustments of dosage and dosing interval. They vary in their definitions of renal impairment; some are qualitative and remain unclear. All sources provide only a general description; the methods on which the advice is based and references for original data are rarely presented. CONCLUSIONS: The remarkable variation in definitions and recommendations, along with scarce details of the methods used to reach this advice, makes the available sources of drug information ill suited for clinical use. The methods used to retrieve information and use data should be described and made available to the reader. Advice on drug prescription, dose and dosing interval, contraindications, and adverse effects should be evidence based.  (+info)

(5/45) Temporal encoding of place sequences by hippocampal cell assemblies.

Both episodic memory and spatial navigation require temporal encoding of the relationships between events or locations. In a linear maze, ordered spatial distances between sequential locations were represented by the temporal relations of hippocampal place cell pairs within cycles of theta oscillation in a compressed manner. Such correlations could arise due to spike "phase precession" of independent neurons driven by common theta pacemaker or as a result of temporal coordination among specific hippocampal cell assemblies. We found that temporal correlation between place cell pairs was stronger than predicted by a pacemaker drive of independent neurons, indicating a critical role for synaptic interactions and precise timing within and across cell assemblies in place sequence representation. CA1 and CA3 ensembles, identifying spatial locations, were active preferentially on opposite phases of theta cycles. These observations suggest that interleaving CA3 neuronal sequences bind CA1 assemblies representing overlapping past, present, and future locations into single episodes.  (+info)

(6/45) The information seeking of on-duty critical care nurses: evidence from participant observation and in-context interviews.

OBJECTIVES: An observational study describes on-duty nurses' informative behaviors from the perspective of library and information science, rather than patient care,. It reveals their information sources, the kinds of information they seek, and their barriers to information acquisition. METHODS: Participant observation and in-context interviews were used to record in detail fifty hours of the information behavior of a purposive sample of on-duty critical care nurses on twenty-bed critical care unit in a community hospital. The investigator used rigorous ethnographic methods-including open, in vivo, and axial coding--to analyze the resulting rich textual data. RESULTS: The nurses' information behavior centered on the patient, seeking information from people, the patient record, and other systems. The nurses mostly used patient-specific information, but they also used some social and logistic information. They occasionally sought knowledge-based information. Barriers to information acquisition included illegible handwriting, difficult navigation of online systems, equipment failure, unavailable people, social protocols, and mistakes caused by people multitasking while working with multiple complex systems. Although the participating nurses understood and respected evidence-based practice, many believed that taking time to read published information on duty was not only difficult, but perhaps also ethically wrong. They said that a personal information service available to them at all hours of the day or night would be very useful. CONCLUSIONS: On-duty critical care nursing is a patient-centric information activity. A major implication of this study for librarians is that immediate professional reference service--including quality and quantity filtering-may be more useful to on-duty nurses than do-it-yourself searching and traditional document delivery are.  (+info)

(7/45) Mapping the literature of nursing: 1996-2000.

INTRODUCTION: This project is a collaborative effort of the Task Force on Mapping the Nursing Literature of the Nursing and Allied Health Resources Section of the Medical Library Association. This overview summarizes eighteen studies covering general nursing and sixteen specialties. METHOD: Following a common protocol, citations from source journals were analyzed for a three-year period within the years 1996 to 2000. Analysis included cited formats, age, and ranking of the frequency of cited journal titles. Highly cited journals were analyzed for coverage in twelve health sciences and academic databases. RESULTS: Journals were the most frequently cited format, followed by books. More than 60% of the cited resources were published in the previous seven years. Bradford's law was validated, with a small core of cited journals accounting for a third of the citations. Medical and science databases provided the most comprehensive access for biomedical titles, while CINAHL and PubMed provided the best access for nursing journals. DISCUSSION: Beyond a heavily cited core, nursing journal citations are widely dispersed among a variety of sources and disciplines, with corresponding access via a variety of bibliographic tools. Results underscore the interdisciplinary nature of the nursing profession. CONCLUSION: For comprehensive searches, nurses need to search multiple databases. Libraries need to provide access to databases beyond PubMed, including CINAHL and academic databases. Database vendors should improve their coverage of nursing, biomedical, and psychosocial titles identified in these studies. Additional research is needed to update these studies and analyze nursing specialties not covered.  (+info)

(8/45) Mapping the literature of emergency nursing.

PURPOSE: Emergency nursing covers a broad spectrum of health care from trauma surgery support to preventive health care. The purpose of this study is to identify the core literature of emergency nursing and to determine which databases provide the most thorough indexing access to the literature cited in emergency nursing journals. This study is part of the Medical Library Association's Nursing and Allied Health Resources Section's project to map the nursing literature. METHODS: Four key emergency nursing journals were selected and subjected to citation analysis based on Bradford's Law of Scattering. RESULTS: A group of 12 journals made up 33.3% of the 7,119 citations, another 33.3% of the citations appeared in 92 journals, with the remaining 33.3% scattered across 822 journals. Three of the core 12 journals were emergency medicine titles, and 2 were emergency nursing titles from the selected source journals. Government publications constituted 7.5% of the literature cited. CONCLUSIONS: PubMed/MEDLINE provided the best overall indexing coverage for the journals, followed by CINAHL. However, CINAHL provided the most complete coverage for the source journals and the majority of the nursing and emergency medical technology publications and should be consulted by librarians and nurses seeking emergency nursing literature.  (+info)