Colon and rectal anastomoses do not require routine drainage: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
OBJECTIVE: Many surgeons continue to place a prophylactic drain in the pelvis after completion of a colorectal anastomosis, despite considerable evidence that this practice may not be useful. The authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to determine if placement of a drain after a colonic or rectal anastomosis can reduce the rate of complications. METHODS: A search of the Medline database of English-language articles published from 1987 to 1997 was conducted using the terms "colon," "rectum," "postoperative complications," "surgical anastomosis," and "drainage." A manual search was also conducted. Four randomized controlled trials, including a total of 414 patients, were identified that compared the routine use of drainage of colonic and/or rectal anastomoses to no drainage. Two reviewers assessed the trials independently. Trial quality was critically appraised using a previously published scale, and data on mortality, clinical and radiologic anastomotic leakage rate, wound infection rate, and major complication rate were extracted. RESULTS: The overall quality of the studies was poor. Use of a drain did not significantly affect the rate of any of the outcomes examined, although the power of this analysis to exclude any difference was low. Comparison of pooled results revealed an odds ratio for clinical leak of 1.5 favoring the control (no drain) group. Of the 20 observed leaks among all four studies that occurred in a patient with a drain in place, in only one case (5%) did pus or enteric content actually appear in the effluent of the existing drain. CONCLUSIONS: Any significant benefit of routine drainage of colon and rectal anastomoses in reducing the rate of anastomotic leakage or other surgical complications can be excluded with more confidence based on pooled data than by the individual trials alone. Additional well-designed randomized controlled trials would further reinforce this conclusion. (+info)
The role of psychological and biological factors in postinfective gut dysfunction.
BACKGROUND: Both psychological and physiological disturbances have been implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). AIMS: To investigate how the psychological factors act, and the involvement of infective and physiological factors. METHODS: Consecutive patients hospitalised for gastroenteritis reported life events for the previous 12 months, and past illness experiences on standardised questionnaires. They also completed psychometric questionnaires for anxiety, neuroticism, somatisation, and hypochondriasis. In some patients, rectal biopsy specimens were obtained during the acute illness and at three months postinfection. RESULTS: Ninety four patients completed all questionnaires: 22 patients were diagnosed with IBS after their gastroenteritis (IBS+), and 72 patients returned to normal bowel habits (IBS-). IBS+ patients reported more life events and had higher hypochondriasis scores than IBS- patients. The predictive value of the life event and hypochondriasis measures was highly significant and independent of anxiety, neuroticism, and somatisation scores, which were also elevated in IBS+ patients. Rectal biopsy specimens from 29 patients showed a chronic inflammatory response in both IBS+ and IBS- patients. Three months later, specimens from IBS+ patients continued to show increased chronic inflammatory cell counts but those from IBS- patients had returned to normal levels. IBS+ and IBS- patients exhibited rectal hypersensitivity and hyper-reactivity and rapid colonic transit compared with normal controls, but there were no significant differences between IBS+ and IBS- patients for these physiological measurements. CONCLUSION: Psychological factors most clearly predict the development of IBS symptoms after gastroenteritis but biological mechanisms also contribute towards the expression of symptoms. (+info)
High turnover rate of Escherichia coli strains in the intestinal flora of infants in Pakistan.
The Escherichia coli flora of infants in developed countries is dominated by one or a few strains which persist for prolonged periods of time, but no longitudinal studies have been performed in developing countries. To this end, we studied the rectal enterobacterial flora in 22 home-delivered Pakistani infants during their first 6 months of life. Three colonies were isolated and species typed on each of 11 sampling occasions. E. coli isolates were strain typed using electromorphic typing of cytoplasmic enzymes, and their O serogroups were determined. There was a very rapid turnover of enterobacterial strains in the rectal flora of individual infants. On average, 8.5 different E. coli strains were found per infant, and several biotypes of other enterobacteria. Less than 50% of the infants were colonized with E. coli from their mothers, but strains of maternal origin were four times more likely to persists in the infants' flora than other E. coli strains. Enterobacteria other than E. coli were always of non-maternal origin, and Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae biotypes recovered from contaminated feeds were later identified in the infants' rectal flora. An early colonization with klebsiella or enterobacter was significantly associated with diarrhoea during the neonatal period, although these bacteria were not likely to be the cause of the disease. The results suggest that poor hygienic conditions result in an unstable and diverse enterobacterial flora, which may influence infant health. (+info)
P fimbriae and other adhesins enhance intestinal persistence of Escherichia coli in early infancy.
Resident and transient Escherichia coli strains were identified in the rectal flora of 22 Pakistani infants followed from birth to 6 months of age. All strains were tested for O-antigen expression, adhesin specificity (P fimbriae, other mannose-resistant adhesins or type 1 fimbriae) and adherence to the colonic cell line HT-29. Resident strains displayed higher mannose-resistant adherence to HT-29 cells, and expressed P fimbriae (P = 0.0036) as well as other mannose-resistant adhesins (P = 0.012) more often than transient strains. In strains acquired during the first month of life, P fimbriae were 12 times more frequent in resident than in transient strains (P = 0.0006). The O-antigen distribution did not differ between resident and transient strains, and none of the resident P-fimbriated strains belonged to previously recognized uropathogenic clones. The results suggest that adhesins mediating adherence to intestinal epithelial cells, especially P fimbriae, enhance the persistence of E. coli in the large intestine of infants. (+info)
Identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from primary cultures by a slide agglutination test.
Hen antigonococcal lipopolysaccharide hen serum was used in a simple slide agglutination test for the identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from primary isolates. (+info)
An analysis of digital rectal examination and serum-prostate-specific antigen in the early detection of prostate cancer in general practice.
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is now the commonest cancer in men and the second commonest cause of death from cancer. However, general-practice-based research on prostate cancer remains scanty. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the acceptability of digital rectal examination (DRE) and serum-prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the early detection of prostate cancer in a general practice setting. Another aim was to ascertain the incidence of prostate cancer among 50-79-year-old men in the solo practice. METHODS: We conducted an opportunistic, prospective, population-based study involving men with no prior, proven history of prostate cancer. RESULTS: A total of 211 (87.6%) out of 241 targeted patients agreed to take part in the study. Abnormal DREs were found in 9%, while 9.5% of PSA tests were found to be abnormal. One or both tests were abnormal in 29 patients-13.7% of the study population. Eleven biopsies were performed during the study, with cancer detected in three (27.3%)-1.4% of the total population. Eighteen patients were not biopsied either on clinical grounds or by personal choice. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of abnormal DRE and PSA tests was lower than that detected in previous hospital or specialist-based studies. Both tests were found to be highly acceptable to the population studied. Not all patients with abnormal early detection tests need necessarily proceed to further invasive investigations. (+info)
Dietary determinants of colorectal proliferation in the normal mucosa of subjects with previous colon adenomas.
Dietary determinants of colorectal mucosa proliferation were studied in 69 subjects previously operated for at least two sporadic colon adenomas. Information on recent dietary habits was collected by a validated food frequency questionnaire, and proliferation was measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation in colorectal biopsies by determining the labeling index (LI) and the percentage of LI in the upper part of the crypt, two parameters that are increased in subjects at high risk of colon cancer. The LI was significantly higher in women as compared with men (P = 0.01). Diet showed several associations with colorectal mucosa proliferation: (a) subjects in the highest tertile of fish consumption had a significantly lower LI (P = 0.0013) compared with those in the lower tertiles [5.20 +/- 1.87 versus 6.80 +/- 2.18 (mean +/- SD)]; (b) subjects with a low red meat consumption had lower proliferation in the upper part of the crypt [2.38 +/- 2.10, 5.30 +/- 4.62, and 5.89 +/- 4.82 in the low, middle, and high tertile of consumption, respectively (mean +/- SD); P = 0.0093]; (c) according to estimated nutrient intakes, the LI was lower in subjects reporting a high intake of starch (P = 0.006) and higher in subjects with a low intake of beta-carotene (P = 0.002). The results show that subjects reporting a diet rich in fish, starch, and beta-carotene and low in red meat had lower colorectal mucosa proliferation and a normal pattern of proliferation along the crypt. Given the correlation between colorectal proliferative activity and colon cancer risk, such a dietary pattern might be beneficial for subjects at high risk of colon cancer. (+info)
Rectal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to chimpanzees.
Inoculation of chimpanzees with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been used as a model system to define mechanisms of pathogenesis and to test protective efficacy of candidate HIV-1 vaccines. In most of these studies, the animals were inoculated intravenously. However, because HIV-1 is transmitted primarily across mucosal surfaces, future evaluations of vaccines should employ mucosal routes for administering infectious virus to immunized animals. To develop a model of rectal transmission of HIV-1, chimpanzees were exposed without trauma to 4 different HIV-1 strains at doses ranging from 200 to 10,000 TCIDs. Infection, characterized by seroconversion and repeated isolation of virus from lymphocytes, was established in 1 of 5 animals. This animal was sequentially inoculated with a subtype B and then an E strain and was infected with both strains. The results show that rectal exposure of adult chimpanzees to cell-free HIV-1 was not an efficient mode of transmission in this cohort. (+info)