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(1/961) Oxytocin and vasopressin receptors in human and uterine myomas during menstrual cycle and early pregnancy.

The purpose of this study was to determine the specificity and concentration of oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) binding sites in non-pregnant (NP) human and rhesus monkey endometrium, myometrium and fibromyomas, and to determine the cellular localization of OT receptor (OTR). Besides [3H]AVP, [125I]LVA, a specific VP1 receptor subtype antagonist, was used to determine vasopressin receptor (VPR) concentrations. Samples were obtained from 42 pre-menopausal and three pregnant women (5, 13 and 35 weeks gestation), and several NP and pregnant monkeys. Specificity of binding was assessed in competition experiments with unlabelled agonists and antagonists of known pharmacological potency. Cellular localization of OTR was determined by immunohistochemistry. In NP human uterine tissues, [3H]AVP was bound with higher affinity and greater binding capacity than [3H]OT, whereas in pregnant women and in NP and pregnant rhesus monkeys, uterine OT binding capacity was greater. OT and AVP binding sites discriminated very poorly between OT and AVP; [125I]LVA binding sites were more selective than [3H]AVP. Their ligand specificity and binding kinetics indicated the presence of two distinct populations of binding sites for OT and AVP in primate uterus. Endometrium of NP women and monkeys had low OTR and VPR concentrations. Myometrial and endometrial OTR and VPR were down-regulated in midcycle and in early human pregnancy, they were up-regulated in the secretory phase and second half of pregnancy. Immunoreactive OTR in NP uterus was localized in patches of myometrial muscle cells and small numbers of endometrial epithelial cells.  (+info)

(2/961) Adenoviral gene transfer of the human V2 vasopressin receptor improves contractile force of rat cardiomyocytes.

BACKGROUND: In congestive heart failure, high systemic levels of the hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) result in vasoconstriction and reduced cardiac contractility. These effects are mediated by the V1 vasopressin receptor (V1R) coupled to phospholipase C beta-isoforms. The V2 vasopressin receptor (V2R), which promotes activation of the Gs/adenylyl cyclase system, is physiologically expressed in the kidney but not in the myocardium. Expression of a recombinant V2R (rV2R) in the myocardium could result in a positive inotropic effect via the endogenous high concentrations of AVP in heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: A recombinant adenovirus encoding the human V2R (Ad-V2R) was tested for its ability to modulate the cardiac Gs/adenylyl cyclase system and to potentiate contractile force in rat ventricular cardiomyocytes and in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Ad-V2R infection resulted in a virus concentration-dependent expression of the transgene and led to a marked increase in cAMP formation in rV2R-expressing cardiomyocytes after exposure to AVP. Single-cell shortening measurements showed a significant agonist-induced contraction amplitude enhancement, which was blocked by the V2R antagonist, SR 121463A. Pretreatment of Ad-V2R-infected cardiomyocytes with AVP led to desensitization of the rV2R after short-term agonist exposure but did not lead to further loss of receptor function or density after long-term agonist incubation, thus demonstrating resistance of the rV2R to downregulation. CONCLUSIONS: Adenoviral gene transfer of the V2R in cardiomyocytes can modulate the endogenous adenylyl cyclase-signal transduction cascade and can potentiate contraction amplitude in cardiomyocytes. Heterologous expression of cAMP-forming receptors in the myocardium could lead to novel strategies in congestive heart failure by bypassing the desensitized beta-adrenergic receptor signaling.  (+info)

(3/961) Effects of arginine vasopressin on cell volume regulation in brain astrocyte in culture.

Astrocytes initially swell when exposed to hypotonic medium but rapidly return to normal volume by the process of regulatory volume decrease (RVD). The role that arginine vasopressin (AVP) plays in hypotonically mediated RVD in astrocytes is unknown. This study was therefore designed to determine whether AVP might play a role in astrocyte RVD. With the use of 3-O-[3H]methyl-D-glucose to determine water space, AVP treatment resulted in significantly increased 3-O-methyl-D-glucose water space within 30 s of hypotonic exposure (P = 0.0001) and remained significantly elevated above baseline (1. 75 microliter/mg protein) at 5 min (P < 0.021). In contrast, in untreated cells, complete RVD was achieved by 5 min. At 30 s, cell volume with AVP treatment was 37% greater than in cells that received no treatment (2.9 vs. 2.26 microliter/mg protein, respectively; P < 0.006). The rate of cell volume increase (dV/dt) over 30 s was highly significant (0.038 vs. 0.019 microliter. mg protein-1. s-1 in the AVP-treated vs. untreated group; P = 0.0004 by regression analysis). Additionally, the rate of cell volume decrease over the next 4.5 min was also significantly greater with vasopressin treatment (-dV/dt = 0.0027 vs. 0.0013 microliter. mg protein-1. s-1; P = 0.0306). The effect of AVP was concentration dependent with EC50 = 3.5 nM. To determine whether AVP action was receptor mediated, we performed RVD studies in the presence of the V1-receptor antagonists benzamil and ethylisopropryl amiloride and the V2-receptor agonist 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP). Both V1-receptor antagonists significantly inhibited AVP-mediated volume increase by 40-47% (P < 0.005), whereas DDAVP had no stimulatory effects above control. Taken together, these data suggest that AVP treatment of brain astrocytes in culture appears to increase 3-O-methyl-D-glucose water space during RVD through V1 receptor-mediated mechanisms. The significance of these findings is presently unclear.  (+info)

(4/961) Vasopressin V2 receptor enhances gain of baroreflex in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats.

The aim of the present study was to determine the receptor subtype involved in arginine vasopressin (AVP)-induced modulation of baroreflex function in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats using novel nonpeptide AVP V1- and V2-receptor antagonists. Baroreceptor heart rate (HR) reflex was investigated in both SHR and WKY rats which were intravenously administered the selective V1- and V2-receptor antagonists OPC-21268 and OPC-31260, respectively. Baroreflex function was assessed by obtaining alternate pressor and depressor responses to phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively, to construct baroreflex curves. In both SHR and WKY rats baroreflex activity was tested before and after intravenous administration of vehicle (20% DMSO), OPC-21268 (10 mg/kg), and OPC-31260 (1 and 10 mg/kg). Vehicle did not significantly alter basal mean arterial pressure (MAP) and HR values or baroreflex function in SHR or WKY rats. The V1-receptor antagonist had no significant effect on resting MAP or HR values or on baroreflex parameters in both groups of rats, although this dose was shown to significantly inhibit the pressor response to AVP (5 ng iv; ANOVA, P < 0.05). In SHR but not WKY rats the V2-receptor antagonist significantly attenuated the gain (or slope) of the baroreflex curve (to 73 +/- 3 and 79 +/- 7% of control for 1 and 10 mg/kg, respectively), although AVP-induced pressor responses were also attenuated with the higher dose of the V2-receptor antagonist. These findings suggest that AVP tonically enhances baroreflex function through a V2 receptor in the SHR.  (+info)

(5/961) AVP inhibits LPS- and IL-1beta-stimulated NO and cGMP via V1 receptor in cultured rat mesangial cells.

The present study examined how arginine vasopressin (AVP) affects nitric oxide (NO) metabolism in cultured rat glomerular mesangial cells (GMC). GMC were incubated with test agents and nitrite, and intracellular cGMP content, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA, and iNOS protein were analyzed by the Griess method, enzyme immunoassay, and Northern and Western blotting, respectively. AVP inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta)-induced nitrite production in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with concomitant changes in cGMP content, iNOS mRNA, and iNOS protein. This inhibition by AVP was reversed by V1- but not by oxytocin-receptor antagonist. Inhibition by AVP was also reproduced on LPS and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors reversed AVP inhibition, whereas PKC activator inhibited nitrite production. Although dexamethasone and pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC), inhibitors of nuclear factor-kappaB, inhibited nitrite production, further inhibition by AVP was not observed. AVP did not show further inhibition of nitrite production with actinomycin D, an inhibitor of transcription, or cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis. In conclusion, AVP inhibits LPS- and IL-1beta-induced NO production through a V1 receptor. The inhibitory action of AVP involves both the activation of PKC and the transcription of iNOS mRNA in cultured rat GMC.  (+info)

(6/961) Separate receptors mediate oxytocin and vasopressin stimulation of cAMP in rat inner medullary collecting duct cells.

The two neurohypophysial hormones arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin have actions in the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) where both peptides induce an increase in cAMP accumulation. The present study has employed a novel IMCD cell line to determine whether these two hormones induce cAMP accumulation via common or separate receptors, and to characterize the potential receptors responsible. Equal volumes of vehicle (150 mM NaCl) or hormone/antagonist solutions were added to aliquots of 10(4) IMCD cells in the presence of 10(-3) M 3-isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX) and incubated at 37 degrees C for 4 min. cAMP levels were determined by radioimmunoassay and protein concentration by Bradford assay. Both AVP and oxytocin elicited dose-dependent increases in cAMP generation, though oxytocin was less potent than AVP (EC50 = 1.6 x 10(-8) M vs. 7.4 x 10(-10) M). AVP at 10(-8) M and oxytocin at 10(-8) M, concentrations sufficient to elicit near-maximal cAMP accumulation, resulted in cAMP levels of 73.4 +/- 1.7 and 69.0 +/- 3.3 pmol (mg protein)-1 (4 min)-1, respectively (n = 10), compared with the vehicle-treated basal value of 37.7 +/- 2.2 pmol (mg protein)-1 (4 min)-1 (P < 0.001, n = 10). Combined AVP (10(-8) M) and oxytocin 10(-6) M) resulted in cAMP accumulation of 63.8 +/- 3.1 pmol (mg protein)-1 (4 min)-1 (n = 10), which was not significantly different from the effect of oxytocin alone, but slightly less than that for AVP alone (P < 0.05). A submaximal concentration of AVP (10(-10) M) induced cAMP accumulation of 48.6 +/- 2.5 pmol (mg protein)-1 (4 min)-1 (P < 0.01 compared with basal level of 34.9 +/- 2.4 pmol (mg protein)-1 (4 min)-1, n = 10), which was blocked in the presence of a vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist (10(-7) M OPC-31260) but not by the oxytocin receptor antagonist (10(-6) M [Pen1,pMePhe2, Thr4,Orn8]oxytocin) (36.3 +/- 6.1 and 45.1 +/- 1.3 pmol (mg protein)-1 (4 min)-1 respectively, P < 0.05, n = 10). A submaximal concentration of oxytocin (10(-7) M) induced a cAMP accumulation of 45.8 +/- 1.8 pmol (mg protein)-1 (4 min)-1 (n = 10), which was reduced by addition of 10(-6) M oxytocin antagonist (36.3 +/- 2.1 pmol (mg protein)-1 (4 min)-1, P < 0.05, n = 10), whereas co-incubation with 10(-6) M of the V2 receptor antagonist had no effect (43.2 +/- 1.3 pmol (mg protein)-1 (4 min)-1, n = 10). These results indicate that AVP and oxytocin induce cAMP accumulation from a common ATP pool in IMCD cells, and that separate vasopressin V2 and oxytocin receptor systems are involved, perhaps coupled to a common adenylate cyclase system.  (+info)

(7/961) Comparison of two aquaretic drugs (niravoline and OPC-31260) in cirrhotic rats with ascites and water retention.

kappa-Opioid receptor agonists (niravoline) or nonpeptide antidiuretic hormone (ADH) V2 receptor antagonists (OPC-31260) possess aquaretic activity in cirrhosis; however, there is no information concerning the effects induced by the chronic administration of these drugs under this condition. To compare the renal and hormonal effects induced by the long-term oral administration of niravoline, OPC-31260, or vehicle, urine volume, urinary osmolality, sodium excretion, and urinary excretion of aldosterone (ALD) and ADH were measured in basal conditions and for 10 days after the daily oral administration of niravoline, OPC-31260, or vehicle to cirrhotic rats with ascites and water retention. Creatinine clearance, serum osmolality, ADH mRNA expression, and systemic hemodynamics were also measured at the end of the study. Niravoline increased water excretion, peripheral resistance, serum osmolality, and sodium excretion and reduced creatinine clearance, ALD and ADH excretion, and mRNA expression of ADH. OPC-31260 also increased water metabolism and sodium excretion and reduced urinary ALD, although the aquaretic effect was only evident during the first 2 days, and no effects on serum osmolality, renal filtration, and systemic hemodynamics were observed. Therefore, both agents have aquaretic efficacy, but the beneficial therapeutic effects of the long-term oral administration of niravoline are more consistent than those of OPC-31260 in cirrhotic rats with ascites and water retention.  (+info)

(8/961) Effects of exogenous [Arg8]-vasopressin on borderline-hypertensive Hiroshima rats.

The interaction between [Arg8]-vasopressin and a vasopressin receptor antagonist, [d(CH2)5(1), O-Me-Tyr2, Arg8]-vasopressin, was examined in Hiroshima rats and normotensive control rats under pentobarbital anesthesia. [Arg8]-vasopressin dose-dependently increased the arterial pressure in both the Hiroshima and control rats, the pressor effect being greater in the Hiroshima rats. After the administration of a vasopressin antagonist (0.01 mg/kg), which by itself decreased arterial pressure only in the Hiroshima rats, the dose-response curve for [Arg8]-vasopressin was much more greatly shifted to the right in the control rats. These results indicate that with or without a vasopressin antagonist, the exogenous [Arg8]-vasopressin induced more powerful pressor actions in the Hiroshima rats compared to the control rats.  (+info)