Gene expression profiles in HTLV-I-immortalized T cells: deregulated expression of genes involved in apoptosis regulation.
Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia, an acute and often fatal T-cell malignancy. A key step in HTLV-I-induced leukemigenesis is induction of abnormal T-cell growth and survival. Unlike antigen-stimulated T cells, which cease proliferation after a finite number of cell division, HTLV-I-infected T cells proliferate indefinitely (immortalized), thus facilitating occurrence of secondary genetic changes leading to malignant transformation. To explore the molecular basis of HTLV-I-induced abnormal T-cell survival, we compared the gene expression profiles of normal and HTLV-I-immortalized T cells using 'gene array'. These studies revealed a strikingly altered expression pattern of a large number of genes along with HTLV-I-mediated T-cell immortalization. Interestingly, many of these deregulated genes are involved in the control of programmed cell death or apoptosis. These findings indicate that disruption of the cellular apoptosis-regulatory network may play a role in the HTLV-I-mediated oncogenesis. (+info)
Prevention of collagen-induced arthritis by gene delivery of soluble p75 tumour necrosis factor receptor.
Collagen type II-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1 mice can be passively transferred to SCID mice with spleen B- and T-lymphocytes. In the present study, we show that infection ex vivo of splenocytes from arthritic DBA/1 mice with a retroviral vector, containing cDNA for the soluble form of human p75 receptor of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-R) before transfer, prevents the development of arthritis, bone erosion and joint inflammation in the SCID recipients. Assessment of IgG subclass levels and studies of synovial histology suggest that down-regulating the effector functions of T helper-type 1 (Th1) cells may, at least in part, explain the inhibition of arthritis in the SCID recipients. In contrast, the transfer of splenocytes infected with mouse TNF-alpha gene construct resulted in exacerbated arthritis and enhancement of IgG2a antibody levels. Intriguingly, infection of splenocytes from arthritic DBA/1 mice with a construct for mouse IL-10 had no modulating effect on the transfer of arthritis. The data suggest that manipulation of the immune system with cytokines, or cytokine inhibitors using gene transfer protocols can be an effective approach to ameliorate arthritis. (+info)
Maternal second trimester serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha-soluble receptor p55 (sTNFp55) and subsequent risk of preeclampsia.
Preeclampsia is characterized by diffuse vascular endothelial dysfunction. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), which plays a key role in the cytokine network responsible for immunoregulation, is also known to contribute to endothelial dysfunction and other metabolic disturbances noted in preeclampsia. Results from cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study indicate that TNF-alpha (or its soluble receptor, sTNFp55) is increased in the peripheral circulation and amniotic fluid of women with preeclampsia as compared with normotensive women. Between December 1993 and August 1994, prediagnostic sTNFp55 concentrations (a marker of excessive TNF-alpha release) were measured in 35 women with preeclampsia and 222 normotensive women to determine whether elevations precede the clinical manifestation of the disorder. Logistic regression procedures were used to calculate maximum likelihood estimates of odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Mean second trimester (15-22 weeks' gestation) serum sTNFp55 concentrations, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were 14.4% higher in preeclamptic women than in normotensive controls (716.6 pg/ml (standard deviation 193.6) vs. 626.4 pg/ml (standard deviation 158.0); p = 0.003). The relative risk of preeclampsia increased across successively higher quintiles of sTNFp55 (odds ratios were 1.0, 1.3, 2.1, and 3.7, with the lowest quintile used as the referent; p for trend = 0.007). After adjustment for maternal age, adiposity, and parity, the relative risk between extreme quintiles was 3.3 (95% confidence interval 0.8-13.4). These findings indicate that the level of TNF-alpha in maternal circulation is increased prior to the clinical manifestation of the disorder, and they are consistent with the hypothesized role of cytokines in mediating endothelial dysfunction and the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Further work is needed to identify modifiable risk factors for the excessive synthesis and release of TNF-alpha in pregnancy, and to assess whether lowering of TNF-alpha concentrations in pregnancy alters the incidence and severity of preeclampsia. (+info)
Receptor activator of NF-kappaB recruits multiple TRAF family adaptors and activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase.
Receptor activator of NF-kappaB (RANK) is a recently cloned member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily, and its function has been implicated in osteoclast differentiation and dendritic cell survival. Many of the TNFR family receptors recruit various members of the TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF) family for transduction of their signals to NF-kappaB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. In this study, the involvement of TRAF family members and the activation of the JNK pathway in signal transduction by RANK were investigated. TRAF1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 were found to bind RANK in vitro. Association of RANK with each of these TRAF proteins was also detected in vivo. Expression of RANK in cultured cells also induced the activation of JNK, which was blocked by a dominant-negative form of JNK. Furthermore, by employing various C-terminal deletion mutants of RANK, the regions responsible for TRAF interaction and JNK activation were identified. TRAF5 was determined to bind to the C-terminal 11 amino acids and the other TRAF members to a region N-terminal to the TRAF5 binding site. The domain responsible for JNK activation was localized to the same region where TRAF1, 2, 3, and 6 bound, which suggests that these TRAF molecules might mediate the RANK-induced JNK activation. (+info)
Hepatic cytochrome P-450 expression in tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor (p55/p75) knockout mice after endotoxin administration.
Hepatic cytochromes P-450 (CYP) are well characterized drug and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes that are extensively regulated by genetic and environmental factors. Inflammatory mediators, including interleukins (ILs), interferons (IFNs), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), have been shown to down-regulate several CYP isoforms; however, elucidation of the inflammatory mediators that are responsible for specific CYP down-regulation is difficult. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the role endogenous TNF-alpha plays in the regulation of liver CYP expression after endotoxin administration. Mice deficient in the p55 and p75 TNF receptors and wild-type mice were given Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and killed 24 h after administration. CYP analysis indicates that LPS decreases CYP1A, CYP2B, CYP3A, and CYP4A independently of TNF-alpha. CYP2D9 and CYP2E1 activities show differential responses to LPS between wild-type and TNF p55/p75 receptor knockout mice, indicating the down-regulation of CYP2D9 and CYP2E1 is differentially modulated by TNF-alpha expression. Furthermore, TNF-alpha appears to affect the constitutive expression of CYP2D9 and CYP2E1. To date, this is the first evidence suggesting that a proinflammatory cytokine is involved in the constitutive regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes. (+info)
A Fas-dependent component in 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin-induced cytotoxicity in colon carcinoma cells.
We have shown previously (J. A. Houghton et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 94: 8144-8149, 1997) that thymineless death in thymidylate synthase-deficient (TS-) colon carcinoma cells is mediated via Fas/FasL interactions after deoxythymidine (dThd) deprivation, and that Fas-dependent sensitivity of human colon carcinoma cell lines may be dependent upon the level of Fas expressed. The objective of this study was to elucidate whether a Fas-dependent component exists in 5-fluorouracil (FUra)/leucovorin (LV)-induced cytotoxicity of colon carcinoma cells, and whether this may be potentiated by IFN-gamma-induced elevation in Fas expression, using the HT29 cell line as a model. The cytotoxic activity of FUra/LV was inhibited by dThd in HT29 cells and also, in part, by NOK-1+NOK-2 MoAbs that prevent Fas/FasL interactions. FUra/LV-induced cytotoxicity was significantly potentiated by IFN-gamma, reversed by exposure to NOK-1+NOK-2 antibodies, and correlated with a 4-fold induction of Fas expression in the presence of IFN-gamma and significant elevation in expression of FasL. Using five additional human colon carcinoma cell lines, FUra/LV-induced cytotoxicity was dThd-dependent in GC3/c1, VRC5/c1, and Caco2 but not in HCT8 or HCT116 cells. Like HT29 cells, this cytotoxicity was potentiated by IFN-gamma in GC3/c1 and VRC5/c1 but not in Caco2, which fails to express Fas, nor in HCT8 and HCT116, in which no dThd-dependent FUra-induced cytotoxicity was demonstrated. Data suggest that a Fas-dependent component, potentiated by IFN-gamma, exists in FUra/LV-induced cytotoxicity but requires FUra/LV-induced DNA damage for IFN-gamma-induced potentiation to occur. (+info)
Identification of a novel activation-inducible protein of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily and its ligand.
Among members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily, 4-1BB, CD27, and glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor family-related gene (GITR) share a striking homology in the cytoplasmic domain. Here we report the identification of a new member, activation-inducible TNFR family member (AITR), which belongs to this subfamily, and its ligand. The receptor is expressed in lymph node and peripheral blood leukocytes, and its expression is up-regulated in human peripheral mononuclear cells mainly after stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 monoclonal antibodies or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/ionomycin. AITR associates with TRAF1 (TNF receptor-associated factor 1), TRAF2, and TRAF3, and induces nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation via TRAF2. The ligand for AITR (AITRL) was found to be an undescribed member of the TNF family, which is expressed in endothelial cells. Thus, AITR and AITRL seem to be important for interactions between activated T lymphocytes and endothelial cells. (+info)
In vitro inhibition of binding of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha by monoclonal antibody to TNF receptor on glioma cell and monocyte.
The use of monoclonal antibodies to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors, the TNF-p55 receptor (TNF-p55R) and the TNF-p75 receptor (TNF-p75R), was evaluated to reduce the effects of TNF caused by binding to TNF-p75R. Competitive binding of anti-TNF-p55R (mAbp55R) and anti-TNF-p75R monoclonal antibodies (mAbp75R) with iodine-125-labeled TNF-alpha to GL-9 glioma cells and U937 histiocytic lymphoma cells was evaluated. The effects of mAbp55R and mAbp75R on the growth suppression by TNF-alpha of GL-9 cells and TNF-alpha production in U937 cells were also examined. mAbp75R bound to U937 cells competitively with TNF-alpha and suppressed TNF-alpha production by U937, but had no effect on the growth inhibition of GL-9 human glioma cell by TNF-alpha in vitro. These findings suggest that co-administration of TNF-p75R antagonist with TNF-alpha may decrease the toxicity of TNF-alpha administration resulting in a better therapeutic result. (+info)