(1/569) Development of an animal model of autoimmune thyroid eye disease.

In previous studies we have transferred thyroiditis to naive BALB/c and NOD mice with human thyrotropin (TSH) receptor (TSHR)-primed splenocytes. Because the TSHR has been implicated in the pathogenesis of thyroid eye disease (TED) we have examined the orbits of recipients of TSHR-primed T cells, generated using a TSHR fusion protein or by genetic immunization. In the NOD mice, 25 of 26 animals treated with TSHR-primed T cells developed thyroiditis with considerable follicular destruction, numerous activated and CD8+ T cells, and immunoreactivity for IFN-gamma. Thyroxine levels were reduced. Thyroiditis was not induced in controls. None of the NOD animals developed any orbital pathology. Thirty-five BALB/c mice received TSHR-primed spleen cells. Thyroiditis was induced in 60-100% and comprised activated T cells, B cells, and immunoreactivity for IL-4 and IL-10. Autoantibodies to the receptor were induced, including TSH binding inhibiting Igs. A total of 17 of 25 BALB/c orbits displayed changes consisting of accumulation of adipose tissue, edema caused by periodic acid Schiff-positive material, dissociation of the muscle fibers, the presence of TSHR immunoreactivity, and infiltration by lymphocytes and mast cells. No orbital changes or thyroiditis were observed in control BALB/c mice. We have induced orbital pathology having many parallels with human TED, only in BALB/c mice, suggesting that a Th2 autoimmune response to the TSHR may be a prerequisite for the development of TED.  (+info)

(2/569) Adoptive autoimmune hyperthyroidism following allogeneic stem cell transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling with Graves' disease.

Autoimmune diseases which follow allogeneic BMT from a donor who is a patient or a carrier of an autoimmune condition are considered to be a paradigm of adoptive autoimmunity. Seven cases of autoimmune thyroiditis associated with clinical hyperthyroidism have been published to date. In the case reported here a 35-year-old female patient with AML of the M2 subtype received unmanipulated PBSC from her HLA-identical sister who had therapeutically controlled Graves' disease. Antithyroid antibodies, including thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) antibodies, appeared 1 year after transplant. Clinical hyperthyroidism requiring thyrostatic medication appeared after 2 years. The biological and clinical implications of adoptive, post-transplant autoimmunity are briefly discussed.  (+info)

(3/569) The effect of thyrotropin receptor antibodies on the proliferation of FRTL-5 cells and the expression of protooncogene c-fos mRNA.

OBJECTIVE: Hyperthyroidism and a diffuse goiter are the main symptoms of Graves' disease (GD) associated with autoantibodies to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (TRAb). The present study was conducted to evaluate effects of autoantibodies in patients with GD (TRAb-IgG) on induction of the proliferation and c-fos mRNA expression in FRTL-5 cells (Fisher rat thyroid cell line). METHODS: Highly purified IgG fractions were isolated from 11 patients with GD, TRAb-IgG and 15 normal individuals (normal controls) with Protein A Sepharose CL-4B affinity column chromatograph. FRTL-5 cells, which had been grown to subconfluency and deprived of TSH for a few days. Then, these cells were used for measuring cAMP content, 3H-thymidine incorporation in cells and the expression of c-fos mRNA respectively. RESULTS: After stimulation of TRAb-IgG, the cAMP production and 3H-thymidine incorporation in FRTL-5 cells were much higher than those from normal controls (P < 0.05 respectively). Using 32P labelled v-fos probe by the Northern Blot method, the expression of c-fos mRNA could be induced by IgGs from patients with GD. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the stimulation of TRAb-IgG followed by cAMP production and 3H-thymidine incorporation is related to the induction of c-fos mRNA and, thus, to the growth of FRTL-5 cells.  (+info)

(4/569) Selective regulation of G protein-coupled receptor-mediated signaling by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 in FRTL-5 cells: analysis of thyrotropin, alpha(1B)-adrenergic, and A(1) adenosine receptor-mediated responses.

G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) play a key role in the process of receptor homologous desensitization. In the present study, we address the question of whether a variety of receptors coupled to different G protein subtypes and naturally expressed on the same cell are selectively regulated by GRK2. The signaling stimulated by thyrotropin (TSH), alpha(1B)-adrenergic, and A(1) adenosine receptors was studied in FRTL-5 cells permanently transfected to overexpress GRK2 and GRK2-K220R, a kinase dead GRK dominant negative mutant. In FRTL-5 overexpressing GRK2, TSH-induced cyclic AMP response was attenuated, indicating that TSH receptor is desensitized by this kinase. Consistently, FRTL-5 cells overexpressing GRK2-K220R show increased TSH-induced cyclic AMP response, demonstrating that this receptor is under tonic control by GRK. Unlike TSH receptor, alpha(1B)-adrenergic receptor response was unaffected in FRTL-5 overexpressing GRK2 and GRK2-K220R. When A(1) adenosine receptors were stimulated, G(ialpha)-mediated cyclic AMP inhibition was totally unaffected by overexpression of either GRK2 or GRK2-K220R. By contrast, G(betagamma)-mediated response (activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases) was efficiently desensitized by GRK2 but was unaffected by GRK2-K220R overexpression. The present study documents that overexpression of GRK2 results in a selective regulation of different G protein-coupled receptors expressed on the same cell and that this kinase can regulate preferentially only one of the different pathways activated by the same receptor. The preferential regulation of the A(1) adenosine receptor-stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinases by GRK2 indicates that this kinase can have additional regulatory effects on G(betagamma)-stimulated pathways, possibly through direct binding and regulation of the receptor-G(betagamma) complex.  (+info)

(5/569) A case of Graves' disease associated with autoimmune hepatitis and mixed connective tissue disease.

The patient was a woman of forty-eight. Liver dysfunction was pointed out at the age of forty-five. She was admitted to hospital because of her hyperthyroidism. Her palmar skin was wet and her fingers were swollen like sausages. She had a diffuse and elastic hard goiter with a rough surface. The serum levels of free T3 (9.6 pg/mL) and free T4 (3.76 ng/dL) were high and that of TSH (0.11 microU/mL) was low. The activity of TSH-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII) was 89%. The uptake rate of 123I to the thyroid was 55.1% and the uptake pattern was nearly diffuse. The goiter was proved to contain several nodules by ultrasonography, but aspiration cytology showed no malignant cells. She was diagnosed to have Graves' disease with adenomatous goiter. She also had high ALT (34 IU/L) and gamma-globulin (1.97 g/dL). She had positive antinuclear antibody (speckled type), positive anti-ribosomal nuclear protein antibody, and positive LE cell phenomenon. The liver biopsy revealed mononuclear cell infiltration with fibrosis in the portal area. These data indicated that she also had autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). The analysis of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) showed positive A11 which had been reported to relate to Graves' disease, and positive DR4 which had been reported to relate to AIH and MCTD. These results suggested that HLA would determine susceptibility to three distinct autoimmune diseases in this case.  (+info)

(6/569) Contrasting effects of activating mutations of GalphaS and the thyrotropin receptor on proliferation and differentiation of thyroid follicular cells.

The cyclic AMP pathway is a major regulator of thyrocyte function and proliferation and, predictably, its inappropriate activation is associated with a sub-set of human thyroid tumours. Activating mutations are, however, more common in the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) than in its downstream transducer, Galphas. To investigate whether this reflects an inherent difference in their oncogenic potency, we compared the effects of retrovirally-transduced mutant (A623I) TSHR or (Q227L) Galphas (GSP), using the rat thyroid cell line FRTL5 and primary human thyrocytes. In FRTL5, expression of GSP or mutant (m) TSHR induced a 2 - 3-fold increase in basal levels of cAMP. This was associated with TSH-independent proliferation (assessed by both cell number and DNA synthesis) and function (as shown by increased expression of thyroglobulin (Tg) and the sodium/iodide symporter). In primary cultures, expression of mTSHR, but not GSP, consistently induced formation of colonies with epithelial morphology and thyroglobulin expression, capable of 10 - 15 population doublings (PD) compared to less than three in controls. Thus, while mTSHR and GSP exert similar effects in FRTL5, use of primary cultures reveals a major difference in their ability to induce sustained proliferation in normal human thyrocytes, and provides the first direct evidence that mTSHR is sufficient to initiate thyroid tumorigenesis.  (+info)

(7/569) Clinical significance of a sensitive assay for thyroid-stimulating antibodies in Graves' disease using polyethylene glycol at high concentrations and porcine thyroid cells.

The Inui and Ochi group recently reported that cAMP production by porcine thyroid cells (PTC) was augmented more by polyethylene glycol (PEG) 22.5% precipitated fractions from almost all Graves' sera than those of PEG 12.5%. In the present study, thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI) activity was determined with PTC and prepared crude Ig fractions precipitated by two different concentrations of PEG (final concentrations 13.5% and 22.5%) from sera obtained from 117 Graves' patients. The activity of TSI determined by the PEG 13.5% assay and activity determined by the PEG 22.5% assay were designated as thyroid-stimulating antibody (TSAb) and sTSAb, respectively. At first we studied 55 TSAb-positive patients with untreated hyperthyroid Graves' disease and classified them according to the TSAb activity-below 500% (group 1) and above 500% (group 2). The positive stimulatory effect, arbitrarily defined as the ratio of sTSAb to TSAb, being more than 1.2, was observed in 85% of patients, and group 1 had a significantly (P<0.025) greater stimulatory effect (34/35, 97.1%) than group 2 (13/20, 65%). Subsequently, in 29 TSAb-negative patients, sTSAb was measured and detected in 26 (89.7%). Finally, sTSAb, TSAb and TBII were compared between patients presenting with recurrent Graves' disease and those with silent thyroiditis after withdrawal of antithyroid drug treatment for Graves' disease. sTSAb was detected in all 14 relapsed patients, but none of the 9 patients with silent thyroiditis had detectable sTSAb. In contrast, TSAb and TBII activities were found in only 7 (50.0%) of the 14 relapsed cases. The present paper demonstrated that the assay with a higher PEG concentration was found to be sensitive, specific and useful for the diagnosis and follow-up of Graves' disease after drug withdrawal, although the underlying mechanism remains unclear.  (+info)

(8/569) Autoantibodies interacting with purified native thyrotropin receptor.

Native thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) was purified by immunoaffinity chromatography from membrane extracts of stably transfected L cells. An ELISA test was devised to study anti-TSHR autoantibodies directly. Comparison of native TSHR with bacterially expressed, denatured TSHR showed that the latter was not recognized by the autoantibodies, suggesting that they bind to conformational epitopes only present on the native receptor. The use of deglycosylated TSHR and of purified receptor ectodomain (alpha-subunit) showed that the autoantibodies recognized only the protein backbone moiety of the receptor and that their epitopes were localized entirely in its ectodomain. Autoantibodies were detected in 45 of 48 subjects with untreated Graves' disease and in 26 of 47 healthy volunteers. The affinity for the receptor was similar in the two groups (Kd = 0.25-1 x 10-10 M) and the autoantibodies belonged to the IgG class in all cases. Although the concentration of autoantibodies was higher in Graves' disease patients (3.50 +/- 0.36 mg.L-1) than in control subjects (1.76 +/- 0.21) (mean +/- SEM), there was an overlap between the groups. Receptor-stimulating autoantibodies (TSAb) were studied by measuring cAMP synthesis in stably transfected HEK 293 cells. Their characteristics (recognition of alpha-subunit, of deglycosylated TSHR, nonrecognition of bacterially expressed denatured receptor) were similar to those of the antibodies detected by the ELISA test. TSAb were only found in individuals with Graves' disease. The ELISA test measures total anti-TSHR antibodies, whereas the test using adenylate cyclase stimulation measures antibodies that recognize specific epitopes involved in receptor activation. Our observations thus disprove the hypothesis according to which Graves' disease is related to the appearance of anti-TSHR antibodies not present in normal subjects. Actually, anti-TSHR antibodies exist in many euthyroid subjects, in some cases even at concentrations higher than those found in patients with Graves' disease. What distinguishes the latter from normal subjects is the existence of subpopulation(s) of antibodies directed against specific epitope(s) of the receptor involved in its activation.  (+info)