Growth hormone induces insulin-like growth factor-I gene transcription by a synergistic action of STAT5 and HNF-1alpha.
Salmon insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) expression is, as in mammals, induced by growth hormone (GH). To elucidate the mechanism by which GH stimulates the transcription of the IGF-I gene, we transiently transfected Hep3B cells expressing the rat GH receptor with a sIGF-I promoter-luciferase reporter construct. Activation of the construct by GH added to the medium of the transfected cells was observed when two specific transcription factors, STAT5 and HNF-1alpha, were simultaneously overexpressed in these cells. This finding demonstrates for the first time a GH-dependent activation of an IGF-I promoter construct in an immortalized laboratory cell line. (+info
Activation of the adult mode of ovine growth hormone receptor gene expression by cortisol during late fetal development.
The developmental and tissue-specific regulation of growth hormone receptor (GHR) mRNA expression is complex and involves alternate leader exon usage. The transcript composition of hepatic GHR mRNA has therefore been determined in fetal sheep during late gestation and after experimental manipulation of fetal plasma cortisol levels by fetal adrenalectomy and exogenous cortisol infusion, using RNase protection assays and a riboprobe containing exons 1A, 2, and 3 of the ovine GHR gene. Expression of the adult liver-specific GHR mRNA transcript containing exon 1A was not detected earlier than 138 days of gestation (term 145 +/-2 days). Thereafter, expression of this leader exon increased and accounted for 25-30% of the total GHR mRNA in the fetal liver at term. Hepatic GHR mRNA derived from leader exons other than 1A was detectable at 97 days and increased in abundance toward term in parallel with the normal prepartum rise in fetal plasma cortisol. Abolition of this cortisol surge by fetal adrenalectomy prevented both the activation of exon 1A expression and the prepartum rise in GHR mRNA derived from the other leader exons in fetal ovine liver. Conversely, raising cortisol levels by exogenous infusion earlier in gestation prematurely activated exon 1A expression and enhanced the abundance of GHR mRNA transcripts derived from the other leader exons. Cortisol therefore appears to activate the adult mode of GHR gene expression in fetal ovine liver during late gestation. These observations have important implications for the maturation of the somatotrophic axis and for the onset of GH-dependent growth after birth. (+info
GH insensitivity induced by endotoxin injection is associated with decreased liver GH receptors.
Sepsis induces a state of growth hormone (GH) resistance associated with a decrease of circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I, a GH-dependent anabolic hormone mainly produced by the liver. To address the mechanisms that might trigger GH insensitivity in sepsis, we investigated the regulation of liver GH receptor (GHR) and its gene expression by endotoxin. Endotoxin injection in rats decreased serum IGF-I and liver GH-binding sites after 10 h. In contrast to liver GHR, circulating GH-binding protein (GHBP) levels were not significantly reduced after endotoxin injection. The parallel decrease in IGF-I and GHR and in their corresponding liver mRNAs suggests that decreased serum IGF-I and liver GHR were likely to result from decreased liver synthesis. Although GH administration in control animals significantly enhanced serum IGF-I, it did fail to prevent the decline in serum IGF-I and liver GH-binding sites in endotoxemic rats. In this study, we showed that endotoxin injection induces a state of GH insensitivity associated with decreased liver GHR. This decline in GHR, which cannot be prevented by exogenous GH, might contribute to the GH insensitivity observed in sepsis. (+info
Ruminant placental lactogens act as antagonists to homologous growth hormone receptors and as agonists to human or rabbit growth hormone receptors.
Growth hormone receptor (GHR)-mediated activity of ruminant placental lactogens (PLs) and ovine (o) GH was compared, using cells transfected with full size human (h), rabbit (rb), and oGHRs. All three PLs acted as agonists in heterologous bioassays, whereas in homologous bioassays in cells transfected with oGHRs they antagonized the oGH activity. Despite these differences, oGH and PLs bound with similar affinity to the oGHR extracellular domain (oGHR-ECD), indicating that the binding occurs through hormone site I. Gel filtration of complexes between oPL and oGHR-ECD showed a 1:1 stoichiometry, confirming this conclusion. The oPL T185D and bPL T188D, which exhibited weak biological activity mediated through GHRs, behaved as site I antagonists, whereas oPL G130R and bPL G133R formed a 1:1 complex with GHR-ECDs and bound to h/rb/oGHR-ECDs with affinity similar to that of wild-type oPL. They had no agonistic activity in all models transfected with h/rb and oGHRs, but were antagonistic to all of them. In conclusion, ruminant PLs antagonize the activity of oGH in homologous systems, because they cannot homodimerize oGHRs, whereas in heterologous systems they act as agonists. The structural analysis hints that minor differences in the sequence of the GHR-ECDs may account for this difference. Since the initial step in the activity transduced through cytokine/hemapoietic receptors family is receptor homodimerization or heterodimerization, we suggest that the question of homologous versus heterologous interactions should be reexamined. (+info
Isolation and characterization of a novel promoter for the bovine growth hormone receptor gene.
The use of alternative promoters represents an important mechanism for the regulation of growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene expression. Two promoters have been isolated previously for the GHR gene: the P1 promoter that drives liver-specific expression, and the P2 promoter that drives ubiquitous expression. In the present study, we isolated a third GHR promoter termed P3. The P3 promoter was GC-rich and TATA-less. The P3 promoter was able to drive the expression of a luciferase reporter gene in cell lines Hep G2, PLC/PRF/5, and BHK-21. In vivo, the P3 promoter initiated transcription from two major sites in exon 1C of the GHR gene in many tissues. In the adult bovine liver, the P3-transcribed GHR mRNA represented only 10% of the total GHR mRNA pool. In non-hepatic tissues such as kidney, skeletal muscle, mammary gland, and uterus, P3-transcribed GHR mRNA represented 30-40% of the total GHR mRNA pool. Within the bovine GHR gene, the P3 promoter was located immediately downstream from the P2 promoter. In transfected cells, the P2 promoter served as an enhancer for the P3 promoter. Existence and co-regulation of two ubiquitous promoters may be a mechanism for achieving a high level of expression of the GHR gene in multiple tissues. (+info
Differential expression of the growth hormone receptor and growth hormone-binding protein in epithelia and stroma of the mouse mammary gland at various physiological stages.
Increasing evidence suggests that GH is important in normal mammary gland development. To investigate this further, we studied the distribution and levels of growth hormone receptor (GHR) and GH-binding protein (GHBP) in the mouse mammary gland. At three weeks of age, the epithelial component of the right fourth inguinal mammary gland of female mice was removed. These animals were then either maintained as virgins until they were killed or they were mated. One group of the mated mice was killed on day 18 of pregnancy and the remaining mated animals were allowed to carry their pups until term and were killed on day 6 of lactation. At the time of death, both the intact left and the de-epithelialized right mammary glands were collected from all three groups. Some of the intact glands served as a source of epithelial cells, free of stroma. The mRNA levels for GHR and GHBP were measured in intact glands, epithelia-cleared fat pads, and isolated mammary epithelial cells. GHR and GHBP mRNAs were expressed in both the mammary epithelium and stroma. However, the levels of both GHR and GHBP mRNAs were significantly higher in the stroma as compared with the epithelium component. This increase for both mRNAs was from 3- to 12-fold at each physiological state examined. In the intact gland, both GHR and GHBP transcripts were highest in virgins, declined during late pregnancy, and the lowest levels were found in the lactating gland. GHBP and GHR protein concentrations were also assessed in intact glands and epithelia-free fat pads. Similar to the mRNAs, GHR and GHBP protein levels (means+/-s.e.m.) in intact glands were highest in virgin mice (0.891+/-0.15 pmoles/mg protein and 0.136+/-0.26 pmoles/mg protein respectively), declined during late pregnancy (0. 354+/-0.111 pmoles/mg protein and 0.178+/-0.039 pmoles/mg protein respectively), and were lowest during lactation (0.096+0.037 pmoles/mg protein and 0.017+0.006 pmoles/mg protein respectively). Immunocytochemistry utilizing specific antisera against mouse (m) GHR and mGHBP revealed that the two proteins are localized to both the stroma and parenchyma of mouse mammary glands, with similar patterns of immunostaining throughout the different physiological stages analyzed. GHR immunolocalized to the plasma membrane and cytosol of mammary epithelial cells and adipocytes, whereas the GHBP immunostaining was nuclear and cytosolic. In conclusion, we report here that GHR and GHBP mRNAs and proteins are expressed in both the epithelium and the stroma of mammary glands of virgin, pregnant, and lactating mice. In intact glands, GHR and GHBP proteins, as well as their transcripts are higher in abundance in virgin relative to lactating mice. At all physiological stages, GHR and GHBP mRNA levels are higher in the stroma compared with the parenchyma. These findings indicate that the actions of GH in the mammary gland are both direct through its binding to the epithelia, and indirect by binding to the stroma and stimulation of IGF-I production which, in turn, affects mammary epithelial development. (+info
The ubiquitin-proteasome system and endocytosis.
Internalization of membrane proteins has been studied for more than three decades without solving all the underlying mechanisms. Our knowledge of clathrin-mediated endocytosis is certainly sufficient to understand the basic principles. However, more detailed insight is required to recognize why different proteins enter clathrin-coated pits with different rates and affinities. In addition to clathrin coat components, at least two adaptor systems and even more accessory proteins have been described to preselect membrane proteins before they can enter cells. Recent experimental data have identified the ubiquitin-proteasome system as a regulatory system for endocytosis. This system is well-known for its basic regulatory function in protein degradation, and controls a magnitude of key events. The ubiquitin-proteasome system is now identified as a regulator of the endocytosis of selected membrane proteins. In this review, we will discuss the complexity and implications of this mechanism for receptor-mediated endocytosis. (+info
Identification of novel sites in the ovine growth hormone receptor involved in binding hormone and conferring species specificity.
Using site-directed mutagenesis we mutated the extracellular domain of the ovine growth hormone receptor (oGHR) to the corresponding amino acids in the rat GHR at two different sites: site A is between Thr28 and Leu34 and represents a major immunogenic epitope, while site B is between Ser121 and Asp124 and is involved in the interaction of the human GHR with growth hormone (GH). Native and mutant receptors were bacterially expressed and refolded, and then RIA and GH-binding assays were carried out on the purified recombinant proteins. Mutations at the N-terminal site A of oGHR led to greatly reduced binding to bovine GH and, in addition, to significant loss of recognition by a polyclonal antiserum to bovine GHR which recognizes site A as a major epitope. The crystal structure of human GH bound to human GHR did not resolve this extreme N-terminal region of the receptor but our data indicate that the N-terminal loop undertakes a 180 degrees turn bringing it into close proximity to the hormone-binding domain in a fashion analogous to the prolactin receptor. A fourfold decrease in affinity for binding bovine GH was also observed after mutation of site B. However, this change from the ovine sequence to the equivalent sequence in the rat GHR at site B caused a 2.4-fold increase in the affinity of binding to rat GH. Taken together, the changes in binding affinity of the site-B mutant for rat and bovine GH demonstrate that this site is involved in conferring species specificity for binding GH. (+info