P2Z purinoreceptor ligation induces activation of caspases with distinct roles in apoptotic and necrotic alterations of cell death.
Myeloic cells express a peculiar surface receptor for extracellular ATP, called the P2Z/P2X7 purinoreceptor, which is involved in cell death signalling. Here, we investigated the role of caspases, a family of proteases implicated in apoptosis and the cytokine secretion. We observed that extracellular ATP induced the activation of multiple caspases including caspase-1, -3 and -8, and subsequent cleavage of the caspase substrates PARP and lamin B. Using caspase inhibitors, it was found that caspases were specifically involved in ATP-induced apoptotic damage such as chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. In contrast, inhibition of caspases only marginally affected necrotic alterations and cell death proceeded normally whether or not nuclear damage was blocked. Our results therefore suggest that the activation of caspases by the P2Z receptor is required for apoptotic but not necrotic alterations of ATP-induced cell death. (+info)
P2X7/P2Z purinoreceptor-mediated activation of transcription factor NFAT in microglial cells.
ATP is released from neurons and other cell types during several physiological and stress conditions under which it exerts various biological effects upon binding to purinoreceptors. A rather peculiar purinoreceptor called P2X7/P2Z is expressed on microglial and other myeloic cells. Although increasing evidence implicates an important role for P2Z in inflammatory processes, little information exists about underlying signaling pathways. Here, we report that in N9 microglial cells, extracellular ATP potently activates nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), a central transcription factor involved in cytokine gene expression. ATP activated NFAT rapidly (within 1 min), whereas activation of nuclear factor kappaB was much delayed, with strikingly distinct kinetics. During ATP stimulation, both NFAT-1 and NFAT-2 were activated by a calcineurin-dependent pathway that required the influx of extracellular calcium ions. Based on the pharmacological profile, NFAT activation was specifically mediated by P2Z and not by other purinoreceptors. N9 cells that lacked P2Z but still expressed P2Y purinoreceptors failed to respond to NFAT activation. We conclude that P2Z-mediated NFAT activation may represent a novel mechanism by which extracellular ATP can modulate early inflammatory gene expression within the nervous and immune system. (+info)
Cutting edge: purinergic signaling regulates radical-mediated bacterial killing mechanisms in macrophages through a P2X7-independent mechanism.
Signaling by extracellular nucleotides through P2 purinergic receptors affects diverse macrophage functions; however, its role in regulating antimicrobial radicals during bacterial infection has not been investigated. Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected macrophages released ATP in a dose-dependent manner, which correlated with nitrite accumulation. P2 receptor inhibitors, including oxidized ATP, blocked NO synthase (NOSII) up-regulation and NO production induced by infection with M. tuberculosis or bacille Calmette-Guerin, or treatment with LPS or TNF-alpha. Oxidized ATP also inhibited oxygen radical production and activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1 in response to infection and inhibited NO-dependent killing of bacille Calmette-Guerin by macrophages. Experiments using macrophages derived from P2X7 gene-disrupted mice ruled out an essential role for P2X7 in NOSII regulation. These data demonstrate that P2 receptors regulate macrophage activation in response to bacteria and proinflammatory stimuli, and suggest that extracellular nucleotides released from infected macrophages may enhance production of oxygen radicals and NO at sites of infection. (+info)
Mouse dendritic cells express the P2X7 purinergic receptor: characterization and possible participation in antigen presentation.
Immune cells express P2 purinoceptors of the P2Y and P2X subtypes. In the present work, we show that three dendritic cell (DC) lines, D2SC/1, CB1, and FSDC, representative of immature DCs, express the P2X7 (formerly P2Z) receptor, as judged from RT-PCR amplification, reactivity to a specific antiserum, and pharmacological and functional evidence. Receptor expression is higher in FSDC cells, a cell line that is functionally more mature than D2SC/1 and CB1. From the wild-type DC population, we selected cell clones lacking the P2X7R (P2X7less). We also used a P2XR blocker, oxidized ATP, to irreversibly inhibit the P2X7R. Ability of P2X7less FSDCs or of oxidized ATP-inhibited FSDCs to stimulate Ag-specific TH lymphocytes was severely decreased although Ag endocytosis was minimally affected. During coculture with TH lymphocytes, wild-type FSDC secreted large amounts of IL-1beta. Release of this cytokine was reduced in P2X7less DCs. These data show that DCs express the P2X7 purinoceptor and suggest a correlation between P2X7R expression and Ag-presenting activity. (+info)
Kinetics of cell lysis, dye uptake and permeability changes in cells expressing the rat P2X7 receptor.
1. Extracellular ATP acting on P2X7 receptors opens a channel permeable to small cations, creates an access pathway for the entry of larger molecular weight dyes, and causes cell death. We used whole-cell recording and fluorescence microscopy to measure the time courses of ionic currents, uptake of the propidium dye YO-PRO-1, and membrane disruption, in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells expressing the rat P2X7 receptor. 2. The ATP analogue 2', 3'-O-(benzoyl-4-benzoyl)-ATP (30 microM) induced membrane blebbing within 30-40 s of sustained application; this was 5-10 times slower when extracellular sodium was replaced by larger cations. 3. Fluorescence of YO-PRO-1 was detectable within 3 s, and the uptake reached a steady rate within 10-20 s; YO-PRO-1 uptake was greatly enhanced by removing extracellular sodium. 4. Electrophysiological measurements of current reversal potentials with intracellular sodium and extracellular cations of different sizes showed that the ionic channel progressively t'2+LE0i%-i"dilated during 10-20 s to a diameter greater than 1 nm (10 A). With short agonist applications (3-5 s) the pore dilatation and YO-PRO-1 uptake were reversible and repeatable. 5. Polyethylene glycols having molecular weights >= 5000 blocked the increase in cation permeability, YO-PRO-1 uptake and membrane blebbing. 6. We conclude that maximum P2X7 receptor activation causes an exponential dilatation of the ion channel with a time constant of 25 s to a final diameter of 3-5 nm from an initial minimum pore diameter of 0.8 nm. (+info)
Pharmacological characterization of ATP- and LPS-induced IL-1beta release in human monocytes.
1. We have utilized the human monocytic cell line, THP-1, and freshly isolated adherent human monocytes with the compounds pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disuphonic acid (PPADS), oxidized ATP, and 1-(N, O-bis[5-isoquinolinesufonyll]-N-methyl-L-tyrosyl)-4-phenylpiper azi ne (KN-62) to pharmacologically characterize the P2 receptor involved in ATP-induced release of interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta). We have also investigated the involvement of P2 receptors in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IL-1beta release from both cell types. 2. ATP caused release of IL-1beta from LPS primed THP-1 cells in both a time- and concentration-dependent manner, with a minimal effective ATP concentration of 1 mM. Stimulation of cells with 5 mM ATP resulted in detectable concentrations of IL-1beta in cell supernatants within 30 min. 3. The ATP analogue benzoylbenzoyl ATP (DBATP), a P2X7 receptor agonist, was approximately 10 fold more potent than ATP at eliciting IL-1beta release. 4. KN-62 (1 micro M), PPADS (100 microM) or oxidized ATP (100 uM) significantly inhibited 5 mM ATP-induced IL-1beta release by 81, 90 and 66% respectively, but failed to significantly inhibit LPS-induced IL-1beta release in both THP-1 cells and in freshly isolated human monocytes. 5. In both THP-1 cells and freshly isolated human monocytes, addition of the ATP degrading enzyme apyrase (0.4 U ml(-1)) to cell supernatants prior to LPS activation failed to significantly inhibit the LPS-induced IL-1beta release. In addition there was no correlation between extracellular ATP concentrations and IL-1beta release in THP-1 cells when studied over a 6 h time period. 6. In conclusion our data confirm the involvement of P2X7 receptors in ATP-induced IL-1beta release in human monocytes. However no evidence was obtained which would support the involvement of either endogenous ATP release or P2X7 receptor activation as the mechanism by which LPS-induces IL-1beta release in either the THP-1 cell line or in freshly isolated human monocytes. (+info)
P2Z-Independent and P2Z receptor-mediated macrophage killing by Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from cystic fibrosis patients.
We demonstrate that a mucoid, alginate-producing strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from the lungs of a cystic fibrosis (CF) patient secretes multiple enzymes with nucleoside diphosphate kinase (Ndk), ATPase, adenylate kinase, 5'-nucleotidase, and ATP-modifying enzymatic activities. The secretion is triggered at high cell density and in complex media but is greatly reduced when the mucoid cells are grown in mineral salts media or in presence of 5.0 mM Ca2+ or Mg2+. Interestingly, the secretion is triggered primarily in the mucoid CF isolate of strain 8821M (or in strain FRD1) but not in a nonmucoid laboratory strain, PAO1. The purified secreted Ndk shows 100% match in its N-terminal amino acid sequence with that of purified intracellular Ndk and demonstrates similar enzymatic properties. The N-terminal sequence of the purified ATPase isolated from an ndk knockout mutant shows its identity with that of the heat shock chaperonin Hsp60. During fractionation, the flowthrough fraction from a Mono Q column demonstrates the presence of 5'-nucleotidase, adenylate kinase, and a putative ATP reductase activity. These fractions demonstrate high cytotoxic activities for murine peritoneal primary macrophages which can be further stimulated in the presence of ATP or inhibited by pretreatment of macrophages with oxidized ATP (oATP). The cytotoxicity associated with ATP-induced stimulation is believed to be due to activation of macrophage surface-associated P2Z (P2X7) receptors, which are one of the purinergic receptors responsible for pore formation on macrophage membrane. Blocking of these receptors by pretreatment with oATP blocks ATP-induced macrophage cell death. Thus mucoid P. aeruginosa cells elaborate enzymes that modulate the external ATP levels of macrophages, thereby modulating macrophage cell death through P2Z receptor activation. Evidence for the presence of secreted cytotoxic agents that act independently of P2Z receptor activation is also presented. (+info)
Maitotoxin activates a nonselective cation channel and a P2Z/P2X(7)-like cytolytic pore in human skin fibroblasts.
Maitotoxin (MTX), a potent cytolytic agent, activates Ca(2+) entry via nonselective cation channels in virtually all types of cells. The identity of the channels involved and the biochemical events leading to cell lysis remain unknown. In the present study, the effect of MTX on plasmalemmal permeability of human skin fibroblasts was examined. MTX produced a time- and concentration-dependent increase in cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration that depended on extracellular Ca(2+) and was relatively insensitive to blockade by extracellular lanthanides. MTX also produced a time- and concentration-dependent increase in plasmalemma permeability to larger molecules as indicated by 1) uptake of ethidium (314 Da), 2) uptake of YO-PRO-1 (375 Da), 3) release of intracellular fura 2 (636 Da), 4) uptake of POPO-3 (715 Da), and, ultimately, 5) release of lactate dehydrogenase (relative molecular weight of 140,000). At the single cell level, uptake of YO-PRO-1 correlated in time with the appearance of large MTX-induced membrane currents carried by the organic cation, N-methyl-D-glucamine (167 Da). Thus MTX initially activates Ca(2+)-permeable cation channels and later induces the formation of large pores. These effects of MTX on plasmalemmal permeability are similar to those seen on activation of P2Z/P2X(7) receptors in a variety of cell types, raising the intriguing possibility that MTX and P2Z/P2X(7) receptor stimulation activate a common cytolytic pore. (+info)