(1/2286) Expression of both P1 and P2 purine receptor genes by human articular chondrocytes and profile of ligand-mediated prostaglandin E2 release.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the expression and function of purine receptors in articular chondrocytes. METHODS: Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to screen human chondrocyte RNA for expression of P1 and P2 purine receptor subtypes. Purine-stimulated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release from chondrocytes, untreated or treated with recombinant human interleukin-1alpha (rHuIL-1alpha), was assessed by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: RT-PCR demonstrated that human articular chondrocytes transcribe messenger RNA for the P1 receptor subtypes A2a and A2b and the P2 receptor subtype P2Y2, but not for the P1 receptor subtypes A1 and A3. The P1 receptor agonists adenosine and 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine did not change PGE2 release from chondrocytes. The P2Y2 agonists ATP and UTP stimulated a small release of PGE2 that was potentiated after pretreatment with rHuIL-1alpha. PGE2 release in response to ATP and UTP cotreatment was not additive, but release in response to coaddition of ATP and bradykinin (BK) or UTP and BK was additive, consistent with ATP and UTP competition for the same receptor site. The potentiation of PGE2 release in response to ATP and UTP after rHuIL-1alpha pretreatment was mimicked by phorbol myristate acetate. CONCLUSION: Human chondrocytes express both P1 and P2 purine receptor subtypes. The function of the P1 receptor subtype is not yet known, but stimulation of the P2Y2 receptor increases IL-1-mediated PGE2 release. (+info)
(2/2286) A2B adenosine and P2Y2 receptors stimulate mitogen-activated protein kinase in human embryonic kidney-293 cells. cross-talk between cyclic AMP and protein kinase c pathways.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades underlie long-term mitogenic, morphogenic, and secretory activities of purinergic receptors. In HEK-293 cells, N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) activates endogenous A2BARs that signal through Gs and Gq/11. UTP activates P2Y2 receptors and signals only through Gq/11. The MAPK isoforms, extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK), are activated by NECA and UTP. H-89 blocks ERK activation by forskolin, but weakly affects the response to NECA or UTP. ERK activation by NECA or UTP is unaffected by a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (genistein), attenuated by a phospholipase C inhibitor (U73122), and is abolished by a MEK inhibitor (PD098059) or dominant negative Ras. Inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) by GF 109203X failed to block ERK activation by NECA or UTP, however, another PKC inhibitor, Ro 31-8220, which unlike GF 109203X, can block the zeta-isoform, and prevents UTP- but not NECA-induced ERK activation. In the presence of forskolin, Ro 31-8220 loses its ability to block UTP-stimulated ERK activation. PKA has opposing effects on B-Raf and c-Raf-1, both of which are found in HEK-293 cells. The data are explained by a model in which ERK activity is modulated by differential effects of PKC zeta and PKA on Raf isoforms. (+info)
(3/2286) Selective expression of purinoceptor cP2Y1 suggests a role for nucleotide signalling in development of the chick embryo.
Responses to extracellular nucleotides (e.g., ATP, ADP, etc.) have been demonstrated in a number of embryonic cell types suggesting they may be important signalling molecules during embryonic development. Here the authors describe for the first time the expression of a G-protein-coupled receptor for extracellular ATP, chick P2Y1 (cP2Y1), during embryonic development of the chick. During the first 10 days of embryonic development, cP2Y1 is expressed in a developmentally regulated manner in the limb buds, mesonephros, brain, somites, and facial primordia, suggesting that this receptor may have a role in the development of each of these systems. (+info)
(4/2286) Hetero-oligomeric assembly of P2X receptor subunits. Specificities exist with regard to possible partners.
P2X receptors are a distinct family of ligand-gated ion channels activated by extracellular ATP. Each of the seven identified subunit proteins (P2X1 through P2X7) has been reported to form functional homo-oligomeric channels when expressed in heterologous systems. Functional studies of native receptors, together with patterns of subunit gene expression, suggest that hetero-oligomeric assembly among members of this family may also occur. This prediction is supported by reports describing hetero-oligomeric assembly for three different recombinant subunit combinations. In this report, we systematically examined the ability of all members of the P2X receptor family to interact using a co-immunoprecipitation assay. The seven P2X receptor subunits were differentially epitope-tagged and expressed in various combinations in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. It was found that six of the seven subunits formed homo-oligomeric complexes, the exception being P2X6. When co-assembly between pairs of subunits was examined, all were able to form hetero-oligomeric assemblies with the exception of P2X7. Whereas P2X1, P2X2, P2X5, and P2X6 were able to assemble with most subunits, P2X3 and P2X4 presented a more restricted pattern of co-association. These results suggest that hetero-oligomeric assembly might underlie functional discrepancies observed between P2X responses seen in the native and recombinant settings, while providing for an increased diversity of signaling by ATP. (+info)
(5/2286) Confocal calcium imaging reveals an ionotropic P2 nucleotide receptor in the paranodal membrane of rat Schwann cells.
1. The paranodal Schwann cell region is of major importance for the function of a myelinated axon. In the present study we searched for a possible ionotropic effect of extracellular ATP in this Schwann cell compartment. 2. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from cultured rat Schwann cells revealed that ATP and 2'-3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-adenosine 5'-triphosphate (BzATP) induced a non-specific cation current. The effect of ATP was much enhanced in a Ca2+- and Mg2+-free solution. ADP, UTP and alpha,beta-methylene adenosine 5'-triphosphate (alpha,beta-meATP) had no effect. 3. Confocal Ca2+ imaging of myelinating Schwann cells in isolated rat spinal roots showed a BzATP-induced rise in the free intracellular Ca2+ concentration in the paranodal Schwann cell cytoplasm whereas alpha,beta-meATP and 2-(methylthio)-adenosine 5'-triphosphate were without effect. In contrast to the known metabotropic effect of UTP on these Schwann cell regions, the BzATP-induced Ca2+ signal was not transient, was unaffected by depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores and dependent on the presence of extracellular Ca2+. 4. These results suggest that an ionotropic ATP receptor with electrophysiological and pharmacological characteristics of the P2X7 subtype of nucleotide receptors is functionally active in myelinating Schwann cells of peripheral nerves. Such a receptor might contribute to Schwann cell reactions in nerve injury or neuropathy. (+info)
(6/2286) P2 purinoceptor saturation by adenosine triphosphate impairs renal autoregulation in dogs.
Recent studies have suggested a role for P2 purinoceptors on vascular smooth muscle cells in the mechanism of renal autoregulation. Experiments were performed in anesthetized dogs (n = 9) to examine renal blood flow (RBF) autoregulatory efficiency before and after saturation of P2 purinoceptors with acute intra-arterial administration of ATP (1 mg/kg per min). Dogs were pretreated with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor nitro-L-arginine (NLA) (50 microg/kg per min), to avoid endothelial P2 receptor-mediated effects on nitric oxide release caused by the intra-arterial ATP infusions. NLA treatment decreased RBF (5.3+/-0.3 to 3.6+/-0.2 ml/min per g) and sodium excretion (3.6+/-0.4 to 0.9+/-0.2 ml/min per g) without producing significant changes in GFR (0.92+/-0.04 to 0.90+/-0.06 ml/min per g) or RBF autoregulatory efficiency. ATP administration to NLA-treated dogs resulted in further decreases in RBF (2.8+/-0.2 ml/min per g), GFR (0.58+/-0.05 ml/min per g), and sodium excretion (0.6+/-0.2 micromol/min per g). In addition, there was marked impairment of RBF autoregulatory efficiency during ATP infusion. The slopes of the arterial pressure-blood flow relationships at renal arterial pressures of >75 mmHg were significantly altered, from 0.003+/-0.001 to 0.2+/-0.002 ml/min per g per mmHg. Discontinuation of ATP infusion restored RBF autoregulatory efficiency. Norepinephrine (5 microg/kg per min) administration in these NLA-treated dogs decreased RBF (2.5+/-0.3 ml/min per g; n = 4) to a similar extent, compared with ATP, but did not impair RBF autoregulation. These results support the hypothesis that P2 purinoceptors may be involved in mediating autoregulatory adjustments in renal vascular resistance. (+info)
(7/2286) Ecto-ATPase activity of alpha-sarcoglycan (adhalin).
alpha-Sarcoglycan is a component of the sarcoglycan complex of dystrophin-associated proteins. Mutations of any of the sarcoglycan genes cause specific forms of muscular dystrophies, collectively termed sarcoglycanopathies. Importantly, a deficiency of any specific sarcoglycan affects the expression of the others. Thus, it appears that the lack of sarcoglycans deprives the muscle cell of an essential, yet unknown function. In the present study, we provide evidence for an ecto-ATPase activity of alpha-sarcoglycan. alpha-Sarcoglycan binds ATP in a Mg2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent manner. The binding is inhibited by 3'-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl ATP and ADP. Sequence analysis reveals the existence of a consensus site for nucleotide binding in the extracellular domain of the protein. An antibody against this sequence inhibits the binding of ATP. A dystrophin.dystrophin-associated protein preparation demonstrates a Mg-ATPase activity that is inhibited by the antibody but not by inhibitors of endo-ATPases. In addition, we demonstrate the presence in the sarcolemmal membrane of a P2X-type purinergic receptor. These data suggest that alpha-sarcoglycan may modulate the activity of P2X receptors by buffering the extracellular ATP concentration. The absence of alpha-sarcoglycan in sarcoglycanopathies leaves elevated the concentration of extracellular ATP and the persistent activation of P2X receptors, leading to intracellular Ca2+ overload and muscle fiber death. (+info)
(8/2286) Cell type-specific ATP-activated responses in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.
1. The aim of our study is to clarify the relationship between expression pattern of P2X receptors and the cell type of male adult rat (Wistar) dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. We identified the nociceptive cells of acutely dissociated DRG neurons from adult rats type using capsaicin sensitivity. 2. Two types of ATP-activated currents, one with fast, the other with slow desensitization, were found under voltage-clamp conditions. In addition, cells with fast but not slow desensitization responded to capsaicin, indicating that there was a relationship between current kinetics and capsaicin-sensitivity. 3. Both types of neurons were responsive to ATP and alpha, beta methylene-ATP (alpha,betameATP). The concentration of alpha,(beta)meATP producing half-maximal activation (EC50) of neurons with fast desensitization was less (11 microM) than that of neurons with slow desensitization (63 microM), while the Hill coefficients were similar. Suramin and pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid tetrasodium (PPADS) antagonized alpha,betameATP-induced currents in both types of neurons. 4. In situ hybridization revealed that small cells of the DRG predominantly expressed mRNAs of P2X3 and medium-sized cells expressed mRNAs of P2X2 and P2X3. In contrast, both of mRNAs were not detected in large cells of the DRG. 5. These results suggest that capsaicin-sensitive, small-sized DRG neurons expressed mainly the homomeric P2X3 subunit and that capsaicin-insensitive, medium-sized DRG neurons expressed the heteromultimeric receptor with P2X2 and P2X3. (+info)