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(1/64) Both group IB and group IIA secreted phospholipases A2 are natural ligands of the mouse 180-kDa M-type receptor.

Snake venom and mammalian secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) have been associated with toxic (neurotoxicity, myotoxicity, etc.), pathological (inflammation, cancer, etc.), and physiological (proliferation, contraction, secretion, etc.) processes. Specific membrane receptors (M and N types) for sPLA2s have been initially identified with snake venom sPLA2s as ligands, and the M-type 180-kDa receptor was cloned from different animal species. This paper addresses the problem of the endogenous ligands of the M-type receptor. Recombinant group IB and group IIA sPLA2s from human and mouse species have been prepared and analyzed for their binding properties to M-type receptors from different animal species. Both mouse group IB and group IIA sPLA2s are high affinity ligands (in the 1-10 nM range) for the mouse M-type receptor. These two sPLA2s are expressed in the mouse tissues where the M-type receptor is also expressed, making it likely that both types of sPLA2s are physiological ligands of the mouse M-type receptor. This conclusion does not hold for human group IB and IIA sPLA2s and the cloned human M-type receptor. The two mouse sPLA2s have relatively high affinities for the mouse M-type receptor, but they can have much lower affinities for receptors from other animal species, indicating that species specificity exists for sPLA2 binding to M-type receptors. Caution should thus be exerted in avoiding mixing sPLA2s, cells, or tissues from different animal species in studies of the biological roles of mammalian sPLA2s associated with an action through their membrane receptors.  (+info)

(2/64) Suppression of murine endotoxic shock by sPLA2 inhibitor, indoxam, through group IIA sPLA2-independent mechanisms.

Endotoxic shock is a systemic inflammatory process, involving a variety of proinflammatory mediators. Two types of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) have been implicated in this process. Group IB sPLA2 (PLA2-IB) binds to the PLA2 receptor (PLA2R), and PLA2R-deficient mice exhibit resistance to endotoxin-induced lethality with reduced plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-alpha. Group IIA sPLA2 (PLA2-IIA) is found in many tissues and cell types, and local and systemic levels are elevated under numerous inflammatory conditions including sepsis. In this study, we investigated the effect of a specific sPLA2 inhibitor, indoxam, on murine endotoxic shock. Indoxam suppressed the elevation of plasma TNF-alpha with a similar potency in PLA2-IIA-expressing and PLA2-IIA-deficient mice after LPS challenge. In PLA2-IIA-deficient mice, indoxam also suppressed the elevation of plasma IL-1beta, IL-6 and NO, and prolonged survival after LPS challenge. Indoxam was found to block the PLA2-IB binding to murine PLA2R with a high potency (Ki=30 nM). The inhibitory effects of indoxam on the LPS-induced elevation of plasma TNF-alpha levels could not be observed in mice deficient in PLA2R. These findings suggest that indoxam blocks the production of proinflammatory cytokines during endotoxemia through PLA2-IIA-independent mechanisms, possibly via blockade of the PLA2R function.  (+info)

(3/64) Coordinate expression of secretory phospholipase A(2) and cyclooxygenase-2 in activated human keratinocytes.

PGE(2) levels are altered in human epidermis after in vivo wounding; however, mechanisms modulating PGE(2) production in activated keratinocytes are unclear. In previous studies, we showed that PGE(2) is a growth-promoting autacoid in human primary keratinocyte cultures, and its production is modulated by plating density, suggesting that regulated PGE(2) synthesis is an important component of wound healing. Here, we examine the role of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) and cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes in modulation of PGE(2) production. We report that the increased PGE(2) production that occurs in keratinocytes grown in nonconfluent conditions is also observed after in vitro wounding, indicating that similar mechanisms are involved. This increase was associated with coordinate upregulation of both COX-2 and secretory PLA(2) (sPLA(2)) proteins. Increased sPLA(2) activity was also observed. By RT-PCR, we identified the presence of type IIA and type V sPLA(2), along with the M-type sPLA(2) receptor. Thus the coordinate expression of sPLA(2) and COX-2 may be responsible for the increased prostaglandin synthesis in activated keratinocytes during wound repair.  (+info)

(4/64) Identification of group X secretory phospholipase A(2) as a natural ligand for mouse phospholipase A(2) receptor.

Phospholipase A(2) receptor (PLA(2)R) mediates various biological responses elicited by group IB secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)-IB). The recently cloned group X sPLA(2) (sPLA(2)-X) possesses several structural features characteristic of sPLA(2)-IB. Here, we detected a specific binding site of sPLA(2)-X in mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E(1) cells. Cross-linking experiments demonstrated its molecular weight (180 kDa) to be similar to that of PLA(2)R. In fact, sPLA(2)-X was found to bind the recombinant PLA(2)R expressed in COS-7 cells, and its specific binding detected in mouse lung membranes was abolished by the deficiency of PLA(2)R. These findings demonstrate sPLA(2)-X to be one of the high-affinity ligands for mouse PLA(2)R.  (+info)

(5/64) Secretory phospholipase A2 receptor-mediated activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 in murine bone marrow-derived mast cells.

The current study examined the signal transduction steps involved in the selective release of arachidonic acid (AA) induced by the addition of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) isotypes to bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC). Overexpression of sPLA2 receptors caused a marked increase in AA and PGD2 release after stimulation of BMMC, implicating sPLA2 receptors in this process. The hypothesis that the release of AA by sPLA2 involved activation of cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2) was next tested. Addition of group IB PLA2 to BMMC caused a transient increase in cPLA2 activity and translocation of this activity to membrane fractions. Western analyses revealed that these changes in cPLA2 were accompanied by a time-dependent gel shift of cPLA2 induced by phosphorylation of cPLA2 at various sites. A noncatalytic ligand of the sPLA2 receptor, p-amino-phenyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside BSA, also induced an increase in cPLA2 activity in BMMC. sPLA2 receptor ligands induced the phosphorylation of p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Additionally, an inhibitor of p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (PD98059) significantly inhibited sPLA2-induced cPLA2 activation and AA release. sPLA2 receptor ligands also increased Ras activation while an inhibitor of tyrosine phosphorylation (herbimycin) inhibited the increase in cPLA2 activation and AA release. Addition of partially purified sPLA2 from BMMC enhanced cPLA2 activity and AA release. Similarly, overexpression of mouse groups IIA or V PLA2 in BMMC induced an increase in AA release. These data suggest that sPLA2 mediate the selective release of AA by binding to cell surface receptors and then inducing signal transduction events that lead to cPLA2 activation.  (+info)

(6/64) Increasing molecular diversity of secreted phospholipases A(2) and their receptors and binding proteins.

Secreted phospholipases A(2) (sPLA(2)s) form a large family of structurally related enzymes which are widespread in nature. Snake venoms are known for decades to contain a tremendous molecular diversity of sPLA(2)s which can exert a myriad of toxic and pharmacological effects. Recent studies indicate that mammalian cells also express a variety of sPLA(2)s with ten distinct members identified so far, in addition to the various other intracellular PLA(2)s. Furthermore, scanning of nucleic acid databases fueled by the different genome projects indicates that several sPLA(2)s are also present in invertebrate animals like Drosophila melanogaster as well as in plants. All of these sPLA(2)s catalyze the hydrolysis of glycerophospholipids at the sn-2 position to release free fatty acids and lysophospholipids, and thus could be important for the biosynthesis of biologically active lipid mediators. However, the recent identification of a variety of membrane and soluble proteins that bind to sPLA(2)s suggests that the sPLA(2) enzymes could also function as high affinity ligands. So far, most of the binding data have been accumulated with venom sPLA(2)s and group IB and IIA mammalian sPLA(2)s. Collectively, venom sPLA(2)s have been shown to bind to membrane and soluble mammalian proteins of the C-type lectin superfamily (M-type sPLA(2) receptor and lung surfactant proteins), to pentraxin and reticulocalbin proteins, to factor Xa and to N-type receptors. Venom sPLA(2)s also associate with three distinct types of sPLA(2) inhibitors purified from snake serum that belong to the C-type lectin superfamily, to the three-finger protein superfamily and to proteins containing leucine-rich repeats. On the other hand, mammalian group IB and IIA sPLA(2)s can bind to the M-type receptor, and group IIA sPLA(2)s can associate with lung surfactant proteins, factor Xa and proteoglycans including glypican and decorin, a mammalian protein containing a leucine-rich repeat.  (+info)

(7/64) A high affinity acceptor for phospholipase A2 with neurotoxic activity is a calmodulin.

One of the high affinity binding proteins for ammodytoxin C, a snake venom presynaptically neurotoxic phospholipase A(2), has been purified from porcine cerebral cortex and characterized. After extraction from the membranes, the toxin-binding protein was isolated in a homogenous form using wheat germ lectin-Sepharose, Q-Sepharose, and ammodytoxin-CH-Sepharose chromatography. The specific binding of (125)I-ammodytoxin C to the isolated acceptor was inhibited to different extents by some neurotoxic phospholipases A(2), ammodytoxins, bee venom phospholipase A(2), agkistrodotoxin, and crotoxin; but not by nontoxic phospholipases A(2), ammodytin I(2), porcine pancreatic phospholipase A(2), and human type IIA phospholipase A(2); suggesting the significance of the acceptor in the mechanism of phospholipase A(2) neurotoxicity. The isolated acceptor was identified as calmodulin by tandem mass spectrometry. Since calmodulin is generally considered as an intracellular protein, the identity of this acceptor supports the view that secretory phospholipase A(2) neurotoxins have to be internalized to exert their toxic effect. Moreover, since ammodytoxin is known to block synaptic transmission, its interaction with calmodulin as an acceptor may constitute a valuable probe for further investigation of the role of the latter in this Ca(2+)-regulated process.  (+info)

(8/64) Enhancement of mast cell survival: a novel function of some secretory phospholipase A(2) isotypes.

This study tested the hypothesis that certain secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) isotypes act in a cytokine-like fashion through cell surface receptors to influence mast cell survival. Initial experiments revealed that sPLA(2) activity and sPLA(2) receptor expression are increased, and mast cells lost their capacity to maintain membrane asymmetry upon cytokine depletion. Groups IB and III, but not group IIA PLA(2), prevented the loss of membrane asymmetry. Similarly, group IB prevented nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in mast cells. Providing putative products of sPLA(2) hydrolysis to cytokine-depleted mast cells did not influence survival. Furthermore, catalytic inactivation of sPLA(2) did not alter its capacity to prevent apoptosis. Inhibition of protein synthesis using cycloheximide or actinomycin reversed the antiapoptotic effect of sPLA(2). Additionally, both wild-type and catalytically inactive group IB PLA(2) induced IL-3 synthesis in mast cells. However, adding IL-3-neutralizing Ab did not change Annexin V(FITC) binding and only partially inhibited thymidine incorporation in sPLA(2)-supplemented mast cells. In contrast, IL-3-neutralizing Ab inhibited both Annexin V(FITC) binding and thymidine incorporation in mast cells maintained with IL-3. sPLA(2) enhanced phosphoinositide 3'-kinase activity, and a specific inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3'-kinase reversed the antiapoptotic effects of sPLA(2). Likewise, sPLA(2) increased the degradation of I-kappaBalpha, and specific inhibitors of nuclear factor kappa activation (NF-kappaB) reversed the antiapoptotic effects of sPLA(2). Together, these experiments reveal that certain isotypes of sPLA(2) enhance the survival of mast cells in a cytokine-like fashion by activating antiapoptotic signaling pathways independent of IL-3 and probably via sPLA(2) receptors rather than sPLA(2) catalytic products.  (+info)