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(1/928) Cellular sites for dynorphin activation of kappa-opioid receptors in the rat nucleus accumbens shell.

The nucleus accumbens (Acb) is prominently involved in the aversive behavioral aspects of kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) agonists, including its endogenous ligand dynorphin (Dyn). We examined the ultrastructural immunoperoxidase localization of KOR and immunogold labeling of Dyn to determine the major cellular sites for KOR activation in this region. Of 851 KOR-labeled structures sampled from a total area of 10,457 microm2, 63% were small axons and morphologically heterogenous axon terminals, 31% of which apposed Dyn-labeled terminals or also contained Dyn. Sixty-eight percent of the KOR-containing axon terminals formed punctate-symmetric or appositional contacts with unlabeled dendrites and spines, many of which received convergent input from terminals that formed asymmetric synapses. Excitatory-type terminals that formed asymmetric synapses with dendritic spines comprised 21% of the KOR-immunoreactive profiles. Dendritic spines within the neuropil were the major nonaxonal structures that contained KOR immunoreactivity. These spines also received excitatory-type synapses from unlabeled terminals and were apposed by Dyn-containing terminals. These results provide ultrastructural evidence that in the Acb shell (AcbSh), KOR agonists play a primary role in regulating the presynaptic release of Dyn and other neuromodulators that influence the output of spiny neurons via changes in the presynaptic release of or the postsynaptic responses to excitatory amino acids. The cellular distribution of KOR complements those described previously for the reward-associated mu- and delta-opioid receptors in the Acb shell.  (+info)

(2/928) Presynaptic inhibition of GABA(B)-mediated synaptic potentials in the ventral tegmental area during morphine withdrawal.

Opioids increase the firing of dopamine cells in the ventral tegmental area by presynaptic inhibition of GABA release. This report describes an acute presynaptic inhibition of GABAB-mediated IPSPs by mu- and kappa-opioid receptors and the effects of withdrawal from chronic morphine treatment on the release of GABA at this synapse. In slices taken from morphine-treated guinea pigs after washing out the morphine (withdrawn slices), a low concentration of a mu receptor agonist increased, rather than decreased, the amplitude of the GABAB IPSP. In withdrawn slices, after blocking A1-adenosine receptors with 8-cyclopentyl-1, 3-dipropylxantine, mu-opioid receptor activation inhibited the IPSP at all concentrations and increased the maximal inhibition. In addition, during withdrawal, there was a tonic increase in adenosine tone that was further increased by forskolin or D1-dopamine receptor activation, suggesting that metabolism of cAMP was the source of adenosine. The results indicate that during acute morphine withdrawal, there was an upregulation of the basal level of an opioid-sensitive adenylyl cyclase. Inhibition of this basal activity by opioids had two effects. First, a decrease in the formation of cAMP that decreased adenosine tone. This effect predominated at low mu receptor occupancy and increased the amplitude of the IPSP. Higher agonist concentrations inhibited transmitter release by both kinase-dependent and -independent pathways. This study indicates that the consequences of the morphine-induced upregulation of the cAMP cascade on synaptic transmission are dependent on the makeup of receptors and second messenger pathways present on any given terminal.  (+info)

(3/928) Absence of G-protein activation by mu-opioid receptor agonists in the spinal cord of mu-opioid receptor knockout mice.

1. The ability of mu-opioid receptor agonists to activate G-proteins in the spinal cord of mu-opioid receptor knockout mice was examined by monitoring the binding to membranes of the non-hydrolyzable analogue of GTP, guanosine-5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)triphosphate ([35S]GTPgammaS). 2. In the receptor binding study, Scatchard analysis of [3H][D-Ala2,NHPhe4,Gly-ol]enkephalin ([3H]DAMGO; mu-opioid receptor ligand) binding revealed that the heterozygous mu-knockout mice displayed approximately 40% reduction in the number of mu-receptors as compared to the wild-type mice. The homozygous mu-knockout mice showed no detectable mu-binding sites. 3. The newly isolated mu-opioid peptides endomorphin-1 and -2, the synthetic selective mu-opioid receptor agonist DAMGO and the prototype of mu-opioid receptor agonist morphine each produced concentration-dependent increases in [35S]GTPgammaS binding in wild-type mice. This stimulation was reduced by 55-70% of the wild-type level in heterozygous, and virtually eliminated in homozygous knockout mice. 4. No differences in the [35S]GTPgammaS binding stimulated by specific delta1- ([D-Pen2,5]enkephalin), delta2-([D-Ala2]deltorphin II) or kappa1-(U50,488H) opioid receptor agonists were noted in mice of any of the three genotypes. 5. The data clearly indicate that mu-opioid receptor gene products play a key role in G-protein activation by endomorphins, DAMGO and morphine in the mouse spinal cord. They support the idea that mu-opioid receptor densities could be rate-limiting steps in the G-protein activation by mu-opioid receptor agonists in the spinal cord. These thus indicate a limited physiological mu-receptor reserve. Furthermore, little change in delta1-, delta2- or kappa1-opioid receptor-G-protein complex appears to accompany mu-opioid receptor gene deletions in this region.  (+info)

(4/928) Comparison of two aquaretic drugs (niravoline and OPC-31260) in cirrhotic rats with ascites and water retention.

kappa-Opioid receptor agonists (niravoline) or nonpeptide antidiuretic hormone (ADH) V2 receptor antagonists (OPC-31260) possess aquaretic activity in cirrhosis; however, there is no information concerning the effects induced by the chronic administration of these drugs under this condition. To compare the renal and hormonal effects induced by the long-term oral administration of niravoline, OPC-31260, or vehicle, urine volume, urinary osmolality, sodium excretion, and urinary excretion of aldosterone (ALD) and ADH were measured in basal conditions and for 10 days after the daily oral administration of niravoline, OPC-31260, or vehicle to cirrhotic rats with ascites and water retention. Creatinine clearance, serum osmolality, ADH mRNA expression, and systemic hemodynamics were also measured at the end of the study. Niravoline increased water excretion, peripheral resistance, serum osmolality, and sodium excretion and reduced creatinine clearance, ALD and ADH excretion, and mRNA expression of ADH. OPC-31260 also increased water metabolism and sodium excretion and reduced urinary ALD, although the aquaretic effect was only evident during the first 2 days, and no effects on serum osmolality, renal filtration, and systemic hemodynamics were observed. Therefore, both agents have aquaretic efficacy, but the beneficial therapeutic effects of the long-term oral administration of niravoline are more consistent than those of OPC-31260 in cirrhotic rats with ascites and water retention.  (+info)

(5/928) kappa- and mu-Opioid inhibition of N-type calcium currents is attenuated by 4beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and protein kinase C in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

In rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, activation of kappa- and mu-opioid receptors decreases N-type calcium current, whereas a constitutively active form of protein kinase C (PKC; i.e., PKM, a PKC catalytic subunit fragment) increases N-type calcium current. PKC also attenuates inhibition of calcium current by several G protein-linked neurotransmitter systems. We examined the effects of activation of endogenous PKC by 4beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and dialysis of cells with PKM and a pseudosubstrate inhibitor PKC(19-31) (PKC-I) on kappa- and mu-opioid-mediated inhibition of calcium current, calcium current amplitude, and rundown. PMA modestly increased peak calcium current and substantially reduced calcium current "rundown," effects blocked by PKC-I. In contrast, PKC-I decreased calcium current and increased current rundown. PMA attenuated morphine-, dynorphin A-, and U50, 488- but not pentobarbitol-related inhibition of calcium current. Similar effects were seen with intracellular dialysis of PKM. Intracellular PKC-I did not block opioid inhibition of calcium current but did reverse PMA and PKM effects on opioid receptor coupling to calcium channels. Because neither PMA nor PKM changed the proportion of omega-CgTX-inhibited current, their effects were not due to a decrease in the proportion of N-type current. After omega-CgTX treatment, there were no differences in the dynorphin A effects on control and PMA- or PKM-treated neurons, suggesting that PKC primarily affected coupling to N-type calcium channels. These data suggest that in acutely dissociated rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, endogenous PKC is required for maintenance of calcium current, may play a role in regulation of neuronal calcium channels, and could be involved in tolerance and/or cross-talk inhibition of opioid responsiveness.  (+info)

(6/928) Activation of peripheral kappa opioid receptors inhibits capsaicin-induced thermal nociception in rhesus monkeys.

8-Methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide (capsaicin) was locally applied in the tail of rhesus monkeys to evoke a nociceptive response, thermal allodynia, which was manifested as reduced tail-withdrawal latencies in normally innocuous 46 degrees C water. Coadministration of three kappa opioid ligands, U50,488 (3.2-100 microgram), bremazocine (0.1-3.2 microgram), and dynorphin A(1-13) (3.2-100 microgram), with capsaicin in the tail dose-dependently inhibited capsaicin-induced allodynia. This local antinociception was antagonized by a small dose of an opioid antagonist, quadazocine; (0.32 mg), applied in the tail; however, this dose of quadazocine injected s.c. in the back did not antagonize local U50,488. Comparing the relative potency of either agonist or antagonist after local and systemic administration confirmed that the site of action of locally applied kappa opioid agonists is in the tail. In addition, local nor-binaltorphimine (0.32 mg) and oxilorphan (0.1-10 microgram) antagonist studies raised the possibility of kappa opioid receptor subtypes in the periphery, which indicated that U50,488 produced local antinociception by acting on kappa1 receptors, but bremazocine acted probably on non-kappa1 receptors. These results provide functional evidence that activation of peripheral kappa opioid receptors can diminish capsaicin-induced allodynia in primates. This experimental pain model is a useful tool for evaluating peripherally antinociceptive actions of kappa agonists without central side effects and suggests new approaches for opioid pain management.  (+info)

(7/928) Loperamide (ADL 2-1294), an opioid antihyperalgesic agent with peripheral selectivity.

The antihyperalgesic properties of the opiate antidiarrheal agent loperamide (ADL 2-1294) were investigated in a variety of inflammatory pain models in rodents. Loperamide exhibited potent affinity and selectivity for the cloned micro (Ki = 3 nM) compared with the delta (Ki = 48 nM) and kappa (Ki = 1156 nM) human opioid receptors. Loperamide potently stimulated [35S]guanosine-5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate binding (EC50 = 56 nM), and inhibited forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation (IC50 = 25 nM) in Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with the human mu opioid receptor. The injection of 0.3 mg of loperamide into the intra-articular space of the inflamed rat knee joint resulted in potent antinociception to knee compression that was antagonized by naloxone, whereas injection into the contralateral knee joint or via the i.m. route failed to inhibit compression-induced changes in blood pressure. Loperamide potently inhibited late-phase formalin-induced flinching after intrapaw injection (A50 = 6 microgram) but was ineffective against early-phase flinching or after injection into the paw contralateral to the formalin-treated paw. Local injection of loperamide also produced antinociception against Freund's adjuvant- (ED50 = 21 microgram) or tape stripping- (ED50 = 71 microgram) induced hyperalgesia as demonstrated by increased paw pressure thresholds in the inflamed paw. In all animal models examined, the potency of loperamide after local administration was comparable to or better than that of morphine. Loperamide has potential therapeutic use as a peripherally selective opiate antihyperalgesic agent that lacks many of the side effects generally associated with administration of centrally acting opiates.  (+info)

(8/928) Stimulus-dependent translocation of kappa opioid receptors to the plasma membrane.

We examined the cellular and subcellular distribution of the cloned kappa opioid receptor (KOR1) and its trafficking to the presynaptic plasma membrane in vasopressin magnocellular neurosecretory neurons. We used immunohistochemistry to show that KOR1 immunoreactivity (IR) colocalized with vasopressin-containing cell bodies, axons, and axon terminals within the posterior pituitary. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that a major fraction of KOR1-IR was associated with the membrane of peptide-containing large secretory vesicles. KOR1-IR was rarely associated with the plasma membrane in unstimulated nerve terminals within the posterior pituitary. A physiological stimulus (salt-loading) that elicits vasopressin release also caused KOR1-IR to translocate from these vesicles to the plasma membrane. After stimulation, there was a significant decrease in KOR1-IR associated with peptide-containing vesicles and a significant increase in KOR1-IR associated with the plasma membrane. This stimulus-dependent translocation of receptors to the presynaptic plasma membrane provides a novel mechanism for regulation of transmitter release.  (+info)