(1/1356) Activation of Go-proteins by membrane depolarization traced by in situ photoaffinity labeling of galphao-proteins with [alpha32P]GTP-azidoanilide.
Evidence for depolarization-induced activation of G-proteins in membranes of rat brain synaptoneurosomes has been previously reported (Cohen-Armon, M., and Sokolovsky, M. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 2595-2605; Cohen-Armon, M., and Sokolovsky, M. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 9824-9838). In the present work we identify the activated G-proteins as Go-proteins by tracing their depolarization-induced in situ photoaffinity labeling with [alpha32P]GTP-azidoanilide (GTPAA). Labeled GTPAA was introduced into transiently permeabilized rat brain-stem synaptoneurosomes. The resealed synaptoneurosomes, while being UV-irradiated, were depolarized. Relative to synaptoneurosomes at resting potential, the covalent binding of [alpha32P]GTPAA to Galphao1- and Galphao3-proteins, but not to Galphao2- isoforms, was enhanced by 5- to 7-fold in depolarized synaptoneurosomes, thereby implying an accelerated exchange of GDP for [alpha32P]GTPAA. Their depolarization-induced photoaffinity labeling was independent of stimulation of Go-protein-coupled receptors and could be reversed by membrane repolarization, thus excluding induction by transmitters release. It was, however, dependent on depolarization-induced activation of the voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC), regardless of Na+ current. The alpha subunit of VGSC was cross-linked and co-immunoprecipitated with Galphao-proteins in depolarized brain-stem and cortical synaptoneurosomes. VGSC alpha subunit most efficiently cross-linked with guanosine 5'-O-2-thiodiphosphate-bound rather than to guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate)-bound Galphao-proteins in isolated synaptoneurosomal membranes. These findings support a possible involvement of VGSC in depolarization-induced activation of Go-proteins. (+info)
(2/1356) Variability of neurotransmitter concentration and nonsaturation of postsynaptic AMPA receptors at synapses in hippocampal cultures and slices.
To understand the elementary unit of synaptic communication between CNS neurons, one must know what causes the variability of quantal postsynaptic currents and whether unitary packets of transmitter saturate postsynaptic receptors. We studied single excitatory synapses between hippocampal neurons in culture. Focal glutamate application at individual postsynaptic sites evoked currents (I(glu)) with little variability compared with quantal excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). The maximal I(glu) was >2-fold larger than the median EPSC. Thus, variations in [glu]cleft are the main source of variability in EPSC size, and glutamate receptors are generally far from saturation during quantal transmission. This conclusion was verified by molecular antagonism experiments in hippocampal cultures and slices. The general lack of glutamate receptor saturation leaves room for increases in [glu]cleft as a mechanism for synaptic plasticity. (+info)
(3/1356) Nongenomic steroidal modulation of high-affinity serotonin transport.
The ability of steroids to modulate high-affinity 5-HT transport was investigated using cell-based models which stably manifest all known properties of this transport system. beta-Estradiol (E2) exhibited noncompetitive, and possibly allosteric, inhibition of both radiolabeled serotonin ([3H]5-HT) transport by, and radiolabeled cocaine congener ([3H]CFT) binding to, this system. Such inhibitory effects were observed within short time courses and unlikely to result from genomic effects normally ascribed to estrogen action. Rather, such nongenomic effects on 5-HT uptake were more akin to modulatory effects of select steroid metabolites on other plasma membrane systems such as neurotransmitter receptors and ionic channels. Beyond E2, preliminary examination of other steroid metabolites and synthetic steroid receptor agonists/antagonists revealed that inhibition of 5-HT transport is additionally attributable only to estriol (E3, an E2 metabolite) and tamoxifen (a nonsteroidal, E2 receptor antagonist). These findings indicate that the present form of transport modulation is only rendered by select compounds and not a general property of steroidal and related agents. Assessments of covalent conjugates of E2 suggested that E2 interacts with the transporter protein at allosteric site(s) inaccessible from the extracellular domain. These findings collectively suggest that steroid-mediated regulation of 5-HT transport may be a physiologically relevant mechanism, and that antidepressant as well as psychostimulant effects in vivo may contain a steroidal component. (+info)
(4/1356) Biochemical characterization of Wnt-frizzled interactions using a soluble, biologically active vertebrate Wnt protein.
Biochemical studies of Wnt signaling have been hampered by difficulties in obtaining large quantities of soluble, biologically active Wnt proteins. In this paper, we report the production in Drosophila S2 cells of biologically active Xenopus Wnt8 (XWnt8). Epitope- or alkaline phosphatase-tagged XWnt8 proteins are secreted by concentrated S2 cells in a form that is suitable for quantitative biochemical experiments with yields of 5 and 0.5 mg per liter, respectively. Conditions also are described for the production in 293 cells of an IgG fusion of the cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of mouse Frizzled 8 with a yield of 20 mg/liter. We demonstrate the use of these proteins for studying the interactions between soluble XWnt8 and various Frizzled proteins, membrane anchored or secreted CRDs, and a set of insertion mutants in the CRD of Drosophila Frizzled 2. In a solid phase binding assay, the affinity of the XWnt8-alkaline phosphatase fusion for the purified mouse Frizzled 8-CRD-IgG fusion is approximately 9 nM. (+info)
(5/1356) GABA(B) receptor isoforms GBR1a and GBR1b, appear to be associated with pre- and post-synaptic elements respectively in rat and human cerebellum.
1. Metabotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, GABA(B), are coupled through G-proteins to K+ and Ca2+ channels in neuronal membranes. Cloning of the GABAB receptor has not uncovered receptor subtypes, but demonstrated two isoforms, designated GBR1a and GBR1b, which differ in their N terminal regions. In the rodent cerebellum GABA(B) receptors are localized to a greater extent in the molecular layer, and are reported to exist on granule cell parallel fibre terminals and Purkinje cell (PC) dendrites, which may represent pre- and post-synaptic receptors. 2. The objective of this study was to localize the mRNA splice variants, GBR1a and GBR1b for GABA(B) receptors in rat cerebellum, for comparison with the localization in human cerebellum using in situ hybridization. 3. Receptor autoradiography was performed utilizing [3H]-CGP62349 to localize GABA(B) receptors in rat and human cerebellum. Radioactively labelled oligonucleotide probes were used to localize GBR1a and GBR1b, and by dipping slides in photographic emulsion, silver grain images were obtained for quantification at the cellular level. 4. Binding of 0.5 nM [3H]-CGP62349 demonstrated significantly higher binding to GABA(B) receptors in the molecular layer than the granule cell (GC) layer of rat cerebellum (molecular layer binding 200+/-11% of GC layer; P<0.0001). GBR1a mRNA expression was found to be predominantly in the GC layer (PC layer grains 6+/-6% of GC layer grains; P<0.05), and GBR1b expression predominantly in PCs (PC layer grains 818+/-14% of GC layer grains; P<0.0001). 5. The differential distribution of GBR1a and GBR1b mRNA splice variants for GABA(B) receptors suggests a possible association of GBR1a and GBR1b with pre- and post-synaptic elements respectively. (+info)
(6/1356) Multiple G protein-coupled receptors initiate protein kinase C redistribution of GABA transporters in hippocampal neurons.
Neurotransmitter transporters function in synaptic signaling in part through the sequestration and removal of neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft. A recurring theme of transporters is that many can be functionally regulated by protein kinase C (PKC); some of this regulation occurs via a redistribution of the transporter protein between the plasma membrane and the cytoplasm. The endogenous triggers that lead to PKC-mediated transporter redistribution have not been elucidated. G-protein-coupled receptors that activate PKC are likely candidates to initiate transporter redistribution. We tested this hypothesis by examining the rat brain GABA transporter GAT1 endogenously expressed in hippocampal neurons. Specific agonists of G-protein-coupled acetylcholine, glutamate, and serotonin receptors downregulate GAT1 function. This functional inhibition is dose-dependent, mimicked by PKC activators, and prevented by specific receptor antagonists and PKC inhibitors. Surface biotinylation experiments show that the receptor-mediated functional inhibition correlates with a redistribution of GAT1 from the plasma membrane to intracellular locations. These data demonstrate (1) that endogenous GAT1 function can be regulated by PKC via subcellular redistribution, and (2) that signaling via several different G-protein-coupled receptors can mediate this effect. These results raise the possibility that some effects of G-protein-mediated alterations in synaptic signaling might occur through changes in the number of transporters expressed on the plasma membrane and subsequent effects on synaptic neurotransmitter levels. (+info)
(7/1356) Cloning and functional expression of the human histamine H3 receptor.
Histamine regulates neurotransmitter release in the central and peripheral nervous systems through H3 presynaptic receptors. The existence of the histamine H3 receptor was demonstrated pharmacologically 15 years ago, yet despite intensive efforts, its molecular identity has remained elusive. As part of a directed effort to discover novel G protein-coupled receptors through homology searching of expressed sequence tag databases, we identified a partial clone (GPCR97) that had significant homology to biogenic amine receptors. The GPCR97 clone was used to probe a human thalamus library, which resulted in the isolation of a full-length clone encoding a putative G protein-coupled receptor. Homology analysis showed the highest similarity to M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and overall low homology to all other biogenic amine receptors. Transfection of GPCR97 into a variety of cell lines conferred an ability to inhibit forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation in response to histamine, but not to acetylcholine or any other biogenic amine. Subsequent analysis revealed a pharmacological profile practically indistinguishable from that for the histamine H3 receptor. In situ hybridization in rat brain revealed high levels of mRNA in all neuronal systems (such as the cerebral cortex, the thalamus, and the caudate nucleus) previously associated with H3 receptor function. Its widespread and abundant neuronal expression in the brain highlights the significance of histamine as a general neurotransmitter modulator. The availability of the human H3 receptor cDNA should greatly aid in the development of chemical and biological reagents, allowing a greater appreciation of the role of histamine in brain function. (+info)
(8/1356) Differential roles of NMDA and non-NMDA receptors in synaptic responses of neurons in nucleus tractus solitarii of the rat.
The relative role of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA receptors in synaptic responses of neurons in caudal nucleus tractus solitarii (cNTS) was delineated by immunohistochemical and electrophysiologic experiments in rats. Double immunohistochemical staining in in vivo experiments revealed that approximately 80% of cNTS neurons that showed Fos-like immunoreactivity induced by baroreceptor activation were generally also immunoreactive to non-NMDA receptor subunits GluR1 or GluR2. On the other hand, only 20% of Fos-labeled cNTS neurons showed immunoreactivity to NMDA receptor subunits NMDAR1 or NMDAR2. Stimulation of the ipsilateral solitary tract at suprathreshold intensity in slice preparations induced Fos expression in the cNTS and evoked either a single action potential or a complex synaptic response consisting of an initial action potential followed by a secondary slow depolarization. In a majority (70%) of cNTS neurons that exhibited the complex synaptic response, both the initial and secondary components were eliminated reversibly by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (20 microM). This non-NMDA antagonist also inhibited the single action potential manifested by the other population of cNTS neurons. On the other hand, only the secondary slow depolarization was blocked by D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (250 microM) or potentiated by NMDA (1.7 microM). Our results suggested that NMDA and non-NMDA receptors are involved differentially in the synaptic responses of cNTS neurons. Non-NMDA receptors may be distributed predominantly on a majority of the second-order cNTS neurons that may receive primary baroreceptor afferent inputs. On the other hand, NMDA receptors are located primarily on higher-order neurons, which may be connected reciprocally with the second-order cNTS neurons. (+info)